1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP). Estimates of Healthcare-Associated Infections. May 30, 2007. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/hai.html. Accessed March 14, 2008.
2.Perencevich, EN, Sands, KE, Cosgrove, SE, Guadagnoli, E, Meara, E, Platt, R. Health and economic impact of surgical site infections diagnosed after hospital discharge. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:196–203.
3.Sparling, KW, Ryckman, FC, Schoettker, PJ, et al.Financial impact of failing to prevent surgical site infections. Qual Manag Health Care 2007;16:219–225.
4.Whitehouse, JD, Friedman, ND, Kirkland, KB, Richardson, WJ, Sexton, DJ. The impact of surgical-site infections following orthopedic surgery at a community hospital and a university hospital: adverse quality of life, excess length of stay, and extra cost. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:183–189.
5.Kirkland, KB, Briggs, JP, Trivette, SL, Wilkinson, WE, Sexton, DJ. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:725–730.
6.Kowalski, TJ, Berbari, EF, Huddleston, PM, Steckelberg, JM, Mandrekar, JN, Osmon, DR. The management and outcome of spinal implant infections: contemporary retrospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:913–920.
7.Labbé, AC, Demers, AM, Rodrigues, R, Arlet, V, Tanguay, K, Moore, DL. Surgical-site infection following spinal fusion: a case-control study in a children's hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:591–595.
8.Fang, A, Hu, SS, Endres, N, Bradford, DS. Risk factors for infection after spinal surgery. Spine 2005;30:1460–1465.
9.Ho, C, Skaggs, DL, Weiss, JM, Tolo, VT. Management of infection after instrumented posterior spine fusion in pediatric scoliosis. Spine 2007;32:2739–2744.
10.Olsen, MA, Nepple, JJ, Riew, KD, et al.Risk factors for surgical site infection following orthopaedic spinal operations. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90:62–69.
11.Murphy, NA, Firth, S, Jorgensen, T, Young, PC. Spinal surgery in children with idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. What's the difference? J Pediatr Orthop 2006;26:216–220.
12.Ho, C, Sucato, DJ, Richards, BS. Risk factors for the development of delayed infections following posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Spine 2007;32:2272–2277.
13.National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:470–485.
14.Olsen, MA, Mayfield, J, Lauryssen, C, et al.Risk factors for surgical site infection in spinal surgery. J Neurosurg 2003;98(2 Suppl):149–155.
15.Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, Martone, WJ, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:606–608.
16.Mangram, AJ, Horan, TC, Pearson, ML, Silver, LC, Jarvis, WR. Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:97–132.
17.Brown, EM, Pople, IK, de Louvois, J, et al.Spine update: prevention of postoperative infection in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Spine 2004;29:938–945.
18.Troiano, RP, Flegal, KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics 1998;101(3 Pt 2):497–504.
19.Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery. Treat Guidel Med Lett 2004;2:27–32.
20.Bratzier, DW, Houck, PM; Surgical Infection Prevention Guideline Writers Workgroup. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Am J Surg 2005;189:395–404.
21.Lindeboom, JA, Frenken, JW, Tuk, JG, Kroon, FH. A randomized prospective controlled trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in intraoral bone-grafting procedures: preoperative single-dose penicillin versus preoperative single-dose clindamycin. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;35:433–436.
22.Weber, RS, Callender, DL. Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncologic surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 1992;155:16–20.
23.Ueno, C, Hunt, TK, Hopf, HW. Using physiology to improve surgical wound outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;117(7 Suppl):59S–71S.
24.Hopf, HW, Hunt, TK, West, JM, et al.Wound tissue oxygen tension predicts the risk of wound infection in surgical patients. Arch Surg 1997;132:997–1004; discussion 1005.
25.Meiling, AC, Ali, B, Scott, EM, Leaper, DJ. Effects of preoperative warming on the incidence of wound infection after clean surgery: a randomised controlled trial (published correction appears in Lancet 2002;359:896). Lancet 2001;358:876–880.
26.Kurz, A, Sessler, DI, Lenhardt, R; Study of Wound Infection and Temperature Group. Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1209–1215.
27.Barone, JE, Tucker, JB, Cecere, J, et al.Hypothermia does not result in more complications after colon surgery. Am Surg 1999;65:356–359.
28.Munn, MB, Rouse, DJ, Owen, J. Intraoperative hypothermia and postcesarean wound infection. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:582–584.
29.Gerszten, PC, Albright, AL, Pollack, IF, Adelson, PD. Intraoperative hypothermia and ventricular shunt infections [published correction appears in Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:882]. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:591–594.
30.McAnally, HB, Cutter, GR, Ruttenber, AJ, Clarkee, D, Todd, JK. Hypothermia as a risk factor for pediatric cardiothoracic surgical site infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20:459–462.
31.Fairchild, KD, Singh, IS, Patel, S, et al.Hypothermia prolongs activation of NF-KB and augments generation of inflammatory cytokines. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2004;287:C422–C431.
32.Taniguchi, T, Kanakura, H, Takemoto, Y, Yamamoto, K. Effects of hypothermia on mortality and inflammatory responses to endotoxin-induced shock in rats. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2003;10:940–943.
33.Sutcliffe, IT, Smith, HA, Stanimirovic, D, Hutchison, JS. Effects of moderate hypothermia on IL-10-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in piai microcirculation of mice and on proinflammatory gene expression in human cerebral endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2001;21:1310–1319.
34.Seghaye, M, Duchateau, J, Bruniaux, J, et al.Interleukin-10 release related to cardiopulmonary bypass in infants undergoing cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;111:545–553.
35.Cantürk, Z, Cantürk, NZ, Cetinarslan, B, Utkan, NZ, Tarkun, I. Nosocomial infections and obesity in surgical patients. Obes Res 2003;11:769–775.
36.Choban, PS, Heckler, R, Burge, JC, Flancbaum, L. Increased incidence of nosocomial infections in obese surgical patients. Am Surg 1995;61:1001–1005.
37.Apisarnthanarak, A, Jones, M, Waterman, BM, Carroll, CM, Bernardi, R, Fraser, VJ. Risk factors for spinal surgical-site infections in a community hospital: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:31–36.