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Reply to Maiwald et al and Riccio et al

  • Ingi Lee (a1) (a2), Neil O. Fishman (a1), Rajender K. Agarwal (a3), Bruce Y. Lee (a4) and Craig A. Umscheid (a2) (a5)...
  • In response to commentaries on:


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Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Infectious Diseases, 3400 Spruce Street, 3rd Floor. Suite E, Silverstein Building, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (


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1. Riccio, LM, Swenson, BR, Sawyer, RG. The importance of iso-propyl alcohol in skin preparation solutions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:405406 (in this issue).10.1086/659254
2. Maiwald, M, Widmer, AF, Rotter, ML. Lack of evidence for attributing Chlorhexidine as the main active ingredient in skin antiseptics preventing surgical site infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:404405 (in this issue).
3. Lee, I, Agarwal, RK, Lee, BY, Fishman, NO, Umscheid, CA. Systematic review and cost analysis comparing use of Chlorhexidine with use of iodine for preoperative skin antisepsis to prevent surgical site infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:12191229.
4. Edwards, PS, Lipp, A, Holmes, A. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;003949.
5. Berry, AR, Watt, B, Goldacre, MJ. A comparison of the use of povidone-iodine and Chlorhexidine in the prophylaxis of postoperative wound infection. J Hosp Infect 1982;3:402.
6. Swenson, BR, Hedrick, TL, Metzger, R, Bonatti, H, Pruett, TL, Sawyer, RG. Effects of preoperative skin preparation on postoperative wound infection rates: a prospective study of 3 skin preparation protocols. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:964971.
7. Harris, AD, Bradham, DD, Baumgarten, M, Zuckerman, IH, Fink, JC, Perencevich, EN. The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:15861591.
8. Veiga, DF, Damasceno, CA, Veiga-Filho, J, et al. Povidone iodine versus Chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis before elective plastic surgery procedures: a randomized controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;122:170e171e.
9. Culligan, PJ, Kubik, K, Murphy, M, Blackwell, L, Snyder, J. A randomized trial that compared povidone iodine and Chlorhexidine as antiseptics for vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:422425.10.1016/j.ajog.2004.08.010
10. Saltzman, MD, Nuber, GW, Gryzlo, SM, Marecek, GS, Koh, JL. Efficacy of surgical preparation solutions in shoulder surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009;91:19491953.
11. Noorani, A, Rabey, N, Walsh, SR, Davies, RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of preoperative antisepsis with Chlorhexidine versus povidone-iodine in clean-contaminated surgery. Br J Surg 2010;97:16141620.10.1002/bjs.7214
12. Chaiyakunapruk, N, Veenstra, DL, Lipsky, BA, Saint, S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:792801.


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