1.Horan, TC, Culver, DH, Gaynes, RP, et al. Nosocomial infections in surgical patients in the United States, January 1986- June 1992. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993; 14:73–80.
2.Wenzel, RP, Pfaller, MA. Feasible and desirable future targets for reducing the costs of hospital infections. J Hosp Infect 1991; 18(Suppl A):94–98.
3.Jarvis, WR. Selected aspects of the socioeconomic impact of nosocomial infections: morbidity, mortality, cost and prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17:552–557.
4.Fridkin, SK, Pear, SM, Williamson, TH, et al. The role of understaffing in central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17:150–158.
5.Taylor, GJ, Mikell, FL, Moses, HW, et al. Determinants of hospital charges for coronary artery bypass surgery: the economic consequences of postoperative complications. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65:309–313.
6.Weintraub, WS, Jones, EL, Craver, J, et al. Determinants of prolonged length of stay after coronary bypass surgery. Circulation 1989; 80:276–284.
7.Perl, TM, Cullen, JJ, Wenzel, RP, et al. Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. The Mupirocin and the Risk of Staphylococcus aureus Study Team. New Engl J Med 2002; 346:1871–1877.
8.Herwaldt, LA, Swartzendruber, SK, Zimmerman, MB, et al. Hemorrhage after coronary artery bypass graft procedures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998; 19:9–16.
9.Green, JW, Wenzel, RP. Postoperative wound infections: a controlled study of the increased duration of hospital stay and direct cost of hospitalization. Ann Surg 1977; 185:264–268.
10.Kollef, MH, Sharpless, L, Vlasnik, J, et al. The impact of nosocomial infection on patient outcomes following cardiac surgery. Chest 1997; 112:666–675.
11.Hollenbeak, CS, Murphy, DM, Koenig, S, et al. The clinical and economic impact of deep chest surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Chest 2000; 118:397–402.
12.Rebollo, MH, Bernal, JM, Llorca, J, et al. Nosocomial infections in patients having cardiovascular operations: a multivariate analysis of risk factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112:908–913.
13.Kirkland, KB, Briggs, JP, Trivette, SL, et al. The impact of surgical site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:725–730.
14.Reilly, J, Twaddle, S, McIntosh, J, et al. An economic analysis of surgical wound infection. J Hosp Infect 2001; 49:245–249.
15.Coello, R, Glenister, H, Fereres, J, et al. The cost of infection in surgical patients: a case-control study. J Hosp Infect 1993; 25:239–250.
16.Jenney, AW, Harrington, GA, Russo, PL, et al. Cost of surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass surgery. Aust NZ J Surg 2001; 71:662–664.
17.Erbaydar, S, Akgun, A, Eksik, A, et al. Estimation of increased hospital stay due to nosocomial infections in surgical patients: comparison of matched groups. J Hosp Infect 1995; 30:149–154.
18.Asensio, A, Torres, J. Quantifying excess length of postoperative stay attributable to infections: a comparison of methods. J Clin Epidemiol 1999; 52:1249–1256.
19.Merle, V, Germain, J-M, Chamouni, P, et al. Assessment of prolonged hospital stay attributable to surgical site infections using appropriateness evaluation protocol. Am J Infect Control 2000; 28:109–115.
20.Zoutman, D, McDonald, S, Vethanayangan, D. Total and attributable costs of surgical-wound infections at a Canadian tertiary-care center. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998; 19:254–259.
21.Schulgen, G, Kropec, A, Kappstein, I, et al. Estimation of extra hospital stay attributable to nosocomial infections: heterogeneity and timing of events. J Clin Epidemiol 2000; 53:409–417.
22.Larson, L. Cost determination and analysis. In: Bootman, JL, Townsend, RJ, McGhan, WF, eds. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics. 2nd ed. Cincinnati: Harvey Whitney Book Company; 1996:44–59.
23.Finkler, SA. The distinction between costs and charges. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:102–109.
24.Cruse, PJE, Foord, R. The epidemiology of wound infection: a 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds. Surg Clin North Am 1980; 60:27–40.
25.Wenzel, RP. The economics of nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect 1995; 31:79–87.