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A Prospective Study of Infections in Hemodialysis Patients: Patient Hygiene and Other Risk Factors for Infection

  • Lisa G. Kaplowitz (a1), Jane A. Cornstock (a1), Douglas M. Landwehr (a1), Harry P. Dalton (a1) and C. Glen Mayhall (a1)...

Abstract

We performed a prospective randomized study on 71 patients on chronic outpatient hemodialysis to determine whether a sterile technique was better than a clean technique for preparation of the skin over the vascular access site prior to cannulation. In addition, we wanted to determine overall and site-specific infection rates, microbial etiologies of infection, and risk factors for infection. The overall infection rate was 4.7 infections per 100 dialysis months; the vascular access-site infection rate was 1.3 infections per 100 dialysis months; and the rate for bacteremia was 0.7 cases per 100 dialysis months. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen, but infections were equally divided between gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. Advanced age (P = 0.02), a low Karnofsky activity score (P = 0.05), poor hygiene (P = 0.0004) and number of hospitalizations (P = 0.0002) were risk factors for infections in general while only poor hygiene (P = 0.002) was a risk factor for vascular access-site infection. Sterile preparation of the skin over the vascular access site was no more effective at preventing infection than was clean technique (P = 0.80). Maintenance of good personal hygiene may be one of the most important measures for prevention of infections in hemodialysis patients

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Corresponding author

Hospital Epidemiology Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Medical College of Virginia, Box 19, MCV Station, Richmond, VA 23298-0019

References

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