1.Danchaivijitr, S, Chokloikaew, S. A national prevalence study on nosocomial infections 1988. J Med Assoc Thai 1989;72(suppl 2):1–6.
2.Kumarasinghe, G, Goh, H, Tan, KN. Hospital acquired infections in a Singapore Hospital: 1985-1992. Malays J Pathol 1995;17:17–21.
3.Oni, AA, Bakare, RA, Okesola, AO, Ogunlowo, HA, Ewete, AF. Pattern of bacterial pathogens in surgical wound infections. Afr J Med Med Sci 1997;26:139–140.
4.Korinek, A, the French Study Group of Neurosurgical Infections, the Service Epidémiologic, Hygiène et Prévention, and the C-CLIN Paris-Nord. Risk factors for neurosurgical site infections after craniotomy: a prospective multicenter study of 2,944 patients. Neurosurgery 1997;41:1073–1079.
5.Patir, R, Mahapatra, AK, Banerji, AK. Risk factors in postoperative neurosurgical infection: a prospective study. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1992; 119:80–84.
6.Santos, KR, Fonseca, LS, Bravo Neto, GP, Gontijo Filho, PP. Surgical site infection: rates, etiology, and resistance patterns to antimicrobials among strains isolated at Rio de Janeiro University Hospital. Infection 1997;25:217–220.
7.Lim, VKE, Cheong, YM, Suleiman, AB. The use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in seven Malaysian hospitals. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1994;25:698–701.
8.Thamlikitkul, V, Danchaivijitr, S, Kongpattanakul, S, Ckokloikaew, S. Impact of an educational program on antibiotic use in a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. J Clin Epidemiol 1998;51:773–778.
9.Okeke, IN, Lamikanra, A, Edelman, R. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:18–27.
10.Vo, TCM. Theo doi muc do khang thuoc in vitro o benh vien Cho Ray nam 1997. Benh Vien Cho Ray-Tai Lieu Lam Sang Chon Loc 1999;23:89–91.
11.Hoa, NTT; Diep, TS, Wain, J, et al. Community-acquired septicaemia in southern Viet Nam: the importance of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998;92:503–508.
12.Tran, TS, Jamulitrat, S, Chongsuvivatvong, V, Geater, A. Postoperative hospital-acquired infection in Hungvuong Obstetric and Gynaecological Hospital, Vietnam. J Hosp Infect 1998;40:141–147.
13.Mangram, AJ, Horan, TC, Pearson, ML, Silver, LC, Jarvis, WR, the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:247–278.
14.Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128–140.
15.Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, Martone, WJ, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:606–608.
16.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, 6th ed. Approved standard. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1997. NCCLS document M2-A6.
17.Dean, AG, Dean, JA, Coulombier, D, et al. Epi Info Version 6: A Word Processing, Database, and Statistics Program for Epidemiology on Microcomputers. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1995.
18.SAS Institute, Inc. SAS, Release 6.12, Software for Data Analysis. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.; 1996.
19.Horan, TC, Culver, DH. Comparing surgical site infection rates. In: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC). APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology, 1st ed. Washington, DC: APIC; 2000:14.1–14.7.
20.Culver, DH, Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, et al. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. Am J Med 1991;91:152S–157S.
21.Weinstein, JW, Mazon, D, Pantelick, E, Reagan-Cirincione, P, Dembry, LM, Hierholzer, WJ Jr. A decade of prevalence surveys in a tertiary-care center: trends in nosocomial infection rates, device utilization, and patient acuity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:543–548.
22.The EPINE Working Group. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infection in Spain. J Hosp Infect 1992;20:1–13.
23.Vincent, JL, Bihari, DJ, Suter, PM, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe: results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) study. JAMA 1995;274:639–644.
24.Vietnam News Agency. Helmets may become mandatory on highways. Viet Nam News July 21, 2000:1.
25.Vietnam News Agency. Stricter measures to be introduced to reduce road accidents: Deputy Prime Minister. Viet Nam News July 27, 2000:2.
26.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) report, data summary from October 1986-April 1997, issued May 1997. Am J Infect Control 1997;25:477–487.
27.Gedebou, J, Tassew, A, Azene, G. Frequency and resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from surgical patients in a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1983;35:133–138.
28.Centers for Disease Control. Public health focus: Surveillance, prevention, and control of nosocomial infections. MMWR 1992;41:783–787.
29.Kirkland, KB, Briggs, JP, Trivette, SL, Wilkinson, WE, Sexton, DJ. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:725–730.