Chiang, HY, Perencevich, EN, Nair, R, et al. Incidence and outcomes associated with infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in the United States: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:203–215.
2. Russell, DL, Flood, A, Zaroda, TE, et al. Outcomes of colonization with MRSA and VRE among liver transplant candidates and recipients. Am J Transplant 2008;8:1737–1743.
Kamboj, M, Chung, D, Seo, SK, et al. The changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2010;16:1576–1581.
Popiel, KY, Miller, MA. Evaluation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)-associated morbidity following relaxation of VRE screening and isolation precautions in a tertiary care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:818–825.
Perencevich, EN, Fisman, DN, Lipsitch, M, Harris, AD, Morris, JG Jr, Smith, DL. Projected benefits of active surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive care units. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1108–1115.
Wong, T, Woznow, T, Petrie, M, et al. Postdischarge decontamination of MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile isolation rooms using 2 commercially available automated ultraviolet-C-emitting devices. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:416–420.
Rakoczy, T, Hendrickson, C, Kline, S, Streifel, A, Guspiel, A, Gross, A. Investigation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase infections in end stage liver disease after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Am J Infect Control 2014;42:S154.
Olivier, CN, Blake, RK, Steed, LL, Salgado, CD. Risk of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection among patients colonized with VRE. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:404–409.
Britt, NS, Potter, EM, Patel, N, Steed, ME. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of linezolid and daptomycin in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bloodstream infection: a national cohort study of Veterans Affairs patients. Clin Infect Dis 2015;61:871–878.
McKinnell, JA, Arias, CA. Editorial commentary. Linezolid vs daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococci: the evidence gap between trials and clinical experience. Clin Infect Dis 2015;61:879–882.
D’Agata, EM, Gautam, S, Green, WK, Tang, YW. High rate of false-negative results of the rectal swab culture method in detection of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:167–172.
McKinnell, JA, Kunz, DF, Moser, SA, et al. Patient-level analysis of incident vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization and antibiotic days of therapy. Epidemiol Infect 2016;144:1748–1755.
14. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, M100S. 26th ed. Wayne, PA: CLSI; 2016.
Russell, DL, Flood, A, Zaroda, TE, et al. Outcomes of colonization with MRSA and VRE among liver transplant candidates and recipients. Am J Transplant 2008;8:1737–1743.
Huang, HP, Chen, B, Wang, HY, He, M. The efficacy of daily chlorhexidine bathing for preventing healthcare-associated infections in adult intensive care units. Korean J Intern Med 2016;31:1159–1170.
Lautenbach, E, Harris, AD, Perencevich, EN, et al. Test characteristics of perirectal and rectal swab compared to stool sample for detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in the gastrointestinal tract. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005;49:798–800.
Kotton, CN, Lankowski, AJ, Hohmann, EL. Comparison of rectal swabs with fecal cultures for detection of Salmonella typhimurium in adult volunteers. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;56:123–126.
19. Jenkins, SG, Raskoshina, L, Schuetz, AN. Comparison of performance of the novel chromogenic spectra VRE agar to that of bile esculin azide and Campylobacter agars for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in fecal samples. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:3947–3949.
20. Kuch, A, Stefaniuk, E, Ozorowski, T, Hryniewicz, W. New selective and differential chromogenic agar medium, chromID VRE, for screening vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species. J Microbiol Methods 2009;77:124–126.
Stamper, PD, Shulder, S, Bekalo, P, et al. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar VanRE for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in rectal swab specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48:4294–4297.
22. Taur, Y, Xavier, JB, Lipuma, L, et al. Intestinal domination and the risk of bacteremia in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:905–914.
Donskey, CJ, Deshpande, A. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: a review of the literature. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:e17–e21.