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A Novel Risk Factor Associated With Colonization by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Addition to Antimicrobial Treatment

  • Vincent C. C. Cheng (a1) (a2), Jonathan H. K. Chen (a1), Simon Y. C. So (a1), Sally C. Y. Wong (a1), Pui-Hing Chau (a3), Lisa M. W. Wong (a2), Radley H. C. Ching (a2), Modissa M. L. Ng (a2), Wan-Mui Lee (a2), Ivan F. N. Hung (a4), Pak-Leung Ho (a1) and Kwok-Yung Yuen (a1)...



To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).


We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.


Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).


Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1418–1425


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Kwok-Yung Yuen, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (


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