1.Centers for Disease Control. Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to a patient during an invasive dental procedure. MMWR 1990;39:489–493.
2.Centers for Disease Control. Update: transmission of HIV infection during an invasive dental procedure—Florida. MMWR 1991;40:21–33.
3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: investigations of persons treated by HIV-infected health-care workers—United States. MMWR 1993;42:329-331, 337.
4.Ciesielski, CA, Bell, DM, Marianos, DW. Transmission of HIV from infected health-care workers to patients. AIDS 1991;5(suppl 2):S93–97.
5.Ciesielski, C, Marianos, D, Ou, C-Y, et al. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a dental practice. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:798–805.
6.Ou, CY, Ciesielski, CA, Myers, G, et al. Molecular epidemiology of HIV transmission in a dental practice. Science 1992;256:1165–1171.
7.Rhame, FS, Pitt, H, Tapper, ML, et al. Position paper: the HIV-infected health care worker. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:647–656.
8.National Public Health Network of France (Reseau National de Sante Publique). HIV transmission from an orthopedic surgeon to a patient. Press Release 1997.
9.AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Ethical issues involved in the growing AIDS crisis. JAMA 1988;259:1360–1361.
10.AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Ethical issues in the growing AIDS crisis: the HIV-positive practitioner. JAMA 1988;260:790.
11.American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Pediatric AIDS. Pediatric guidelines for infection control of human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency virus) in hospitals, medical offices, schools, and other settings. Pediatrics 1988;82:801–807.
12.American Hospital Association. Management of HIV Infection in the Hospital. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: AHA; 1988.
13.American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, Task Force on AIDS and Orthopedic Surgery. Recommendations for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Transmission in the Practice of Orthopedic Surgery. Park Ridge, IL: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; 1989.
14.Committee on Ethics, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Human immunodeficiency virus infection: physicians' responsibilities. Obstet Gynecol 1990;75:1043–1045.
15.Department of Health and Social Security. AIDS: HIV-Infected Health Care Workers—Report of the Recommendations of the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS. London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; 1988.
16.Speller, DC, Shanson, DC, Ayliffe, GA, Cooke, EM. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: recommendations of a Working Party of the Hospital Infection Society. J Hosp Infect 1990;15:7–84.
17.UK Department of Health, UK Expert Advisory Group on AIDS. AIDS-HIV Infected Health Care Workers: Practical Guidance on Notifying Patients. Heywood Lancashire, England: UK Department of Health; 1993.
18.UK Department of Health, UK Advisory Group on Hepatitis. Protecting Health Care Workers and Patients From Hepatitis B. Heywood Lancashire, England: UK Department of Health; 1993.
19.UK Department of Health, UK Expert Advisory Group on AIDS. AIDS/HIV Infected Health Care Workers: Guidance on the Management of Infected Health Care Workers. Heywood Lancashire, England: UK Department of Health; 1994.
20.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR 1991;40(RR-8):1–9.
21.Bell, D, Shapiro, CN, Chamberland, ME, Ciesielski, CA. Preventing bloodborne pathogen transmission from healthcare workers to patients: the CDC perspective. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:1189–1203.
22.DiMaggio, SL. State regulations and the HIV-positive health care professional: a response to a problem that does not exist. Am J Law and Med 1995;19:497–521.
23.Armstrong, FP, Miner, JC, Wolfe, WH. Investigation of a health care worker with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: an epidemiological approach. Mil Med 1987;152:414–418.
24.Centers for Disease Control. Update: investigations of patients who have been treated by HIV-infected health care workers. MMWR 1992;41:344–346.
25.Danila, RN, MacDonald, KL, Rhame, FS, et al. A look-back investigation of patients of an HIV-infected physician. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1406–1411.
26.Dickinson, GM, Morhart, RE, Klimas, NG, Bandea, CI, Laracuente, JM, Bisno, AL. Absence of HIV transmission from an infected dentist to his patients. JAMA 1993;269:1802–1806.
27.Mishu, B, Schaffner, W, Horan, JM, Wood, LH, Hutcheson, RH, McNabb, PC. A surgeon with AIDS: lack of evidence of transmission to patients. JAMA 1990;264:467–470.
28.Rogers, AS, Froggatt, JW, Townsend, T, et al. Investigation of potential HIV transmission to the patients of an HIV-infected surgeon. JAMA 1993;269:1795–1801.
29.Robert, L, Chamberland, M, Cleveland, J, et al. Investigations of patients of health care workers infected with HIV: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention database. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:653–657.
30.Sacks, JJ. More on AIDS in a surgeon. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1190.
31.Sacks, JJ. AIDS in a surgeon. N Engl J Med 1985;313:1017–1018.
32.Porter, JD, Cruickshank, JG, Gentle, PH, Robinson, RG, Gill, ON. Management of patients treated by surgeon with HIV infection. Lancet 1990;335:113–114.
33.Von Reyn, CF, Gilbert, TT, Shaw, FE, Parsonnet, KC, Abramson, JE, Smith, MG. Absence of HIV transmission from an infected orthopedic surgeon: a 13-year look-back study. JAMA 1993;269:1807–1811.
34.Chant, K, Lowe, D, Rubin, G, et al. Patient-to-patient transmission of HIV in private surgical consulting rooms. Lancet 1993;342(8886–8887):1548–1549.
35.Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre Incident Investigation Teams and others. Transmission of hepatitis B to patients from four infected surgeons without hepatitis B e antigen. N Engl J Med 1997;336:178–184.
36.Bond, WW, Favero, MS, Petersen, NJ, et al. Survival of hepatitis B virus after drying and storage for one week. Lancet 1981;i:550–551.
37.Campos, J, Gonzalez, A, Esteban, JI, Genesca, J, Esteban, R, Guardia, J. Towards zero risk of posttransfusion hepatitis with 2nd generation anti-HCV screening of blood donors. Hepatology 1994;20(4, Part 2):200A. Abstract 413.
38.Esteban, JI, Gomez, J, Martell, M, et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus by a cardiac surgeon. N Engl J Med 1996;334:555–560.
39.Public Health Laboratory Service. Hepatitis C transmission from health care worker to patient. PHLS Communicable Disease Report 1995;5:121.
40.Centers for Disease Control. Summary and recommendations for preventing transmission of infection with human Tlymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in the workplace. MMWR 1985;34:681-686, 691–695.
41.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for preventing transmission of infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus during invasive procedures. MMWR 1986;35:221–223.
42.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. MMWR 1987;36(suppl 2S):1S–19S.
43.Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service guidelines for counseling and antibody testing to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. MMWR 1987;36:509–515.
44.Centers for Disease Control, Division of Safety, National Institutes of Health. Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infections in laboratories producing virus concentrates in large quantities: conclusions and recommendations of an expert team convened by the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). MMWR 1988;37(suppl 4):19–22.
45.Centers for Disease Control. Update: universal precautions for preventions of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR 1988;37:377-382, 387–388.
46.Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service statement on management of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus, including considerations regarding zidovudine postexposure use. MMWR 1990;39:1–14.
47.Gross, PA, Barrett, TI, Dellinger, EP, et al. Consensus development of quality standards. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:180–181.
48.Henderson, DK. Management of health-care workers who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus or other bloodborne pathogens. In: DeVita, V, Hellman, S, Rosenberg, S, eds. AIDS—Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Co; 1993.
49.Meyers, J, Stamm, W, Kwerr, M, Counts, GW. Lack of transmission of hepatitis B after surgical exposure. JAMA 1978;240:1725–1727.
50.Williams, S, Pattison, C, Berquist, KR. Dental infection with hepatitis B. JAMA 1975;232:1231–1233.
51.Alter, HJ, Chalmers, TC, Freeman, BM, et al. Health-care workers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Are their contacts at risk? N Engl J Med 1975;292:454–457.
52.Alter, HJ. Hepatitis B and the health worker: prospective studies in perspective. Ann Intern Med 1976;85:971–972.
53.Bell, DM. Healthcare worker to patient and patient-to-patient transmission of bloodborne infections. Fifth Annual Meeting of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology; San Diego, CA; 04 1995;16(suppl):P6.
54.Gerberding, JL, Littell, C, Tarkington, A, Brown, A, Schecter, WP. Risk of exposure of surgical personnel to patients' blood during surgery at San Francisco General Hospital. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1788–1793.
55.Ho, DD, Sarngadharan, MG, Resnick, L, Dimarzoveronese, F, Rota, TR, Hirsch, MS. Primary human T-lymphotropic virus type III infection. Ann Intern Med 1985;103(6, Pt 1):880–883.
56.Lowenfels, AB, Wormser, GP. Frequency of puncture injuries in surgeons and estimated risk of HIV infection. Arch Surg 1989;124:1284–1286.
57.Panlilio, AL, Welch, BA, Bell, DM, et al. Blood and amniotic fluid contact sustained by obstetric personnel during deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:703–708.
58.Panlilio, AL, Foy, DR, Edwards, JR, et al. Blood contacts during surgical procedures. JAMA 1991;265:1533–1537.
59.Popejoy, SL, Fry, DE. Blood contact and exposure in the operating room. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1991;172:480–483.
60.Tokars, JI, Bell, DM, Culver, DH, et al. Percutaneous injuries during surgical procedures. JAMA 1992;267:2899–2904.
61.Gerberding, JL, Ramiro, N, Perlman, J, Rose, D. Intraoperative blood exposures at San Francisco General Hospital: provider injuries and patient recontacts. 31st Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; New Orleans, LA; 10 1993.
62.Bell, DM, Shapiro, CN, Culver, DH, Martone, WJ, Curran, JW, Hughes, JM. Risk of hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus transmission to a patient from an infected surgeon due to percutaneous injury during an invasive procedure: estimates based on a model. Infect Agents Dis 1992;1:263–269.
63.Fahey, BJ, Koziol, DE, Banks, SM, Henderson, DK. Frequency of nonparenteral occupational exposures to blood and body fluids before and after universal precautions training. Am J Med 1991;90:145–153.
64.Henderson, DK, Fahey, BJ, Saah, AJ. Longitudinal assessment of the risk for occupational/nosocomial transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, type I in health care workers. 28th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Los Angeles, CA; 10 1988. Abstract 634.
65.Henderson, DK, Saah, AJ, Zak, BJ, et al. Risk of nosocomial infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in a large cohort of intensively exposed health care workers. Ann Intern Med 1986;104:644–647.
66.Rhame, FS. The HIV-infected surgeon. JAMA 1990;264:507–508.
67.Neidle, E, American Dental Association. Estimates of the risk of endemic transmission of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus to patients by the percutaneous route during invasive surgical and dental procedures. Open meeting on the risks of transmission of bloodborne pathogens to patients during invasive procedures. Atlanta, GA; 01 1991.
68.Lowenfels, AB, Wormser, G. Risk of transmission of HIV from surgeon to patient. N Engl J Med 1991;325:888–889.
69.Gostin, L. HIV-infected physicians and the practice of seriously invasive procedures. Hastings Cent Rep 1989;19:32–39.
70.Friedland, GH. Transmission of HIV-1 from one child to another. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1314.
71.Siew, C, Chang, SB, Gruninger, SE, Verrusio, AC, Neidle, EA. Selfreported percutaneous injuries in dentists: implications for HBV, HIV transmission risk. J Am Dent Assoc 1992;123:36–44.
72.Mishu, B, Schaffner, W. HIV-Infected surgeons and dentists: looking back and looking forward. JAMA 1993;269:1843–1844.
73.Schaffner, W. Surgeons with HIV infection: the risk to patients. J Hosp Infect 1991;18(suppl A):191–196.
74.Harpaz, R, Von Seidlein, L, Averhoff, FM, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus to multiple patients from a surgeon without evidence of inadequate infection control. N Engl J Med 1996;334:549–554.
75.Harpaz, R, Van Seidlein, L, Averhoff, F, et al. Hepatitis B virus transmission associated with cardiothoracic surgery. 33rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. New Orleans, LA; American Society for Microbiology; 10 1993.
76.Perez-Trallero, E, Cilla, G, Saenz, JR. Occupational transmission of HCV. Lancet 1994;344:548.
77.Marranconi, F, Mecenero, V, Pellizzer, GP, et al. HCV infection after accidental needlestick injury in health-care workers. Infection 1992;20:111.
78.Jochen, AB. Occupationally acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet 1992;339:304.
79.Herbert, AM, Walker, DM, Davies, KJ, Bagg, J. Occupationally acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet 1992;339:305.
80.Tsude, K, Fujiyama, S, Sato, S, et al. Two cases of accidental transmission of hepatitis C to medical staff. Hepatogastroenterology 1992;39:73–75.
81.Sartori, M, La, TG, Agiletta, M, Manzin, A, Navino, C, Verzetti, G. Transmission of hepatitis C via blood splash into conjunctiva. Scand J Infect Dis 1993;25:270–271.
82.Vaqlia, A, Nicolin, R, Puro, V, Ippolito, G, Bettini, C, de Lalla, F. Needlestick hepatitis C virus seroconversion in a surgeon. Lancet 1990;336:1315–1316.
83.Schlipkoter, U, Roggendorf, M, Cholmakow, K, Weise, A, Deinhardt, F. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a haemodialysis patient to a medical staff member. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:757–758.
84.Mitsui, T, Iwano, K, Masuko, K, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in medical personnel after needlestick accident. Hepatology 1992;16:1109–1114.
85.Perez-Trallero, E, Cilla, G, Alcorta, M, Elosegui, ME, Saenz, DJ. Low risk of acquiring hepatitis C virus for health personnel. Med Clin (Barc) 1992;99:609–611.
86.Hernandez, ME, Bruguera, M, Puyuelo, T, Barrera, JM, Sanchez, TJ, Rodies, J. Risk of needle-stick injuries in the transmission of hepatitis C virus in hospital personnel. J Hepatol 1992;16:56–58.
87.Thomas, DL, Factor, SH, Kelen, GD, Washington, AS, Taylor, EJ, Quinn, TC. Viral hepatitis in health care personnel at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1705–1712.
88.Panlilio, AL, Shapiro, CN, Schable, CA, et al. Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among hospital-based surgeons. Serosurvey Study Group. J Am Coll Surg 1995;180:16–24.
89.Wormser, GP, Forseter, G, Joline, C, Tupper, B, O'Brien, TA. Hepatitis C infection in the health care setting, I: low risk from parenteral exposure to blood of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am J Infect Control 1991;19:237–242.
90.Hayashi, PH, Flynn, N, McCurdy, SA, Kuramoto, IK, Holland, PV, Zeldis, JB. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Med Virol 1991;33:177–180.
91.Cooper, BW, Krusell, A, Tilton, RC, Goodwin, R, Levitz, RE. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in high-risk hospital personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:82–85.
92.Kelen, GD, Green, GB, Purcell, RH, et al. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in emergency department patients. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1399–1404.
93.Kiyosawa, K, Sodeyama, T, Tanaka, E, et al. Hepatitis C in hospital employees with needlestick injuries. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:367–369.
94.Sodeyama, T, Kiyosawa, K, Urushihara, A, et al. Detection of hepatitis C virus markers and hepatitis C genomic-RNA after needlestick accidents. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1565–1572.
95.Bowden, FJ, Pollett, B, Birrell, F, Dar, EM. Occupational exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus and other bloodborne pathogens. A six-year prospective study. Med J Aust 1993;158:810–812.
96.Comer, RW, Myers, DR, Steadman, CD, Carter, MJ, Rissing, JP, Tedesco, FJ. Management considerations for an HIV-positive dental student. J Dent Educ 1991;55:187–191.
97.Beck-Sague, C, Dooley, SW, Hutton, MD, et al. Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients. JAMA 1992;268:1280–1286.
98.Castro, KG, Dooley, SW, Curran, JW. Transmission of HIVassociated tuberculosis to health-care workers. Lancet 1992;340:1043–1044.
99.Castro, KG, Dooley, SW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in healthcare settings: is it influenced by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:65–66.
100.Tokars, JI, Jarvis, WR, Edlin, BR, et al. Tuberculin skin testing of hospital employees during an outbreak of multidrugresistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:509–510.
101.Pearson, ML, Jereb, JA, Frieden, TR, et al. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A risk to patients and health care workers. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:191–196.
102.Edlin, BR, Tokars, JI, Grieco, MH, et al. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among hospitalized patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1514–1521.
103.Edlin, BR, Valway, SE, Onorato, IM. Clusters of multidrugresistant tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:77.
104.Dooley, SW, Villarino, ME, Lawrence, M, et al. Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis in a hospital unit for HIV-infected patients. JAMA 1992;267:2632–2634.
105.Dooley, SW, Jarvis, WR, Martone, WJ, Snider, DEJ. Multidrugresistant tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:257–259.
106.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities. Federal Register 1994;59(208):54242–54303.
107.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities. MMWR 1994;43(RR-13):1–132.
108.American Hospital Association. Patients' Bill of Rights. Chicago, IL: AHA; 1975.
109.American Medical Association. Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 1986.
110.Gerbert, B, Maguire, B, Hulley, S, Coates, T. Physicians and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: what patients think about human immunodeficiency virus in medical practice. JAMA 1989;262:1969–1972.
111.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: provisional Public Health Service recommendations for chemoprophylaxis after occupational exposure to HIV. MMWR 1996;45:468–480.