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Incidence and risk factors of non–device-associated pneumonia in an acute-care hospital

  • Paula D. Strassle (a1) (a2), Emily E. Sickbert-Bennett (a1) (a3), Michael Klompas (a4) (a5), Jennifer L. Lund (a1), Paul W. Stewart (a6), Ashley H. Marx (a7), Lauren M. DiBiase (a3) and David J. Weber (a1) (a3)...



To update current estimates of non–device-associated pneumonia (ND pneumonia) rates and their frequency relative to ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), and identify risk factors for ND pneumonia.


Cohort study.


Academic teaching hospital.


All adult hospitalizations between 2013 and 2017 were included. Pneumonia (device associated and non–device associated) were captured through comprehensive, hospital-wide active surveillance using CDC definitions and methodology.


From 2013 to 2017, there were 163,386 hospitalizations (97,485 unique patients) and 771 pneumonia cases (520 ND pneumonia and 191 VAP). The rate of ND pneumonia remained stable, with 4.15 and 4.54 ND pneumonia cases per 10,000 hospitalization days in 2013 and 2017 respectively (P = .65). In 2017, 74% of pneumonia cases were ND pneumonia. Male sex and increasing age we both associated with increased risk of ND pneumonia. Additionally, patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–3.06), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07–2.05), or paralysis (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09–2.73) were also at increased risk, as were those who were immunosuppressed (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18–2.00) or in the ICU (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06–2.09). We did not detect a change in ND pneumonia risk with use of chlorhexidine mouthwash, total parenteral nutrition, all medications of interest, and prior ventilation.


The incidence rate of ND pneumonia did not change from 2013 to 2017, and 3 of 4 nosocomial pneumonia cases were non–device associated. Hospital infection prevention programs should consider expanding the scope of surveillance to include non-ventilated patients. Future research should continue to look for modifiable risk factors and should assess potential prevention strategies.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Paula D. Strassle, Email:


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Incidence and risk factors of non–device-associated pneumonia in an acute-care hospital

  • Paula D. Strassle (a1) (a2), Emily E. Sickbert-Bennett (a1) (a3), Michael Klompas (a4) (a5), Jennifer L. Lund (a1), Paul W. Stewart (a6), Ashley H. Marx (a7), Lauren M. DiBiase (a3) and David J. Weber (a1) (a3)...


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