1.Culver, DH, Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, et al. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Am J Med 1991; 91:152S–157S.
2.Coello, R, Gastmeier, P, de Boer, AS. Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection in England, Germany, and The Netherlands: will international comparison of rates be possible? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001; 22:393–397.
3.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, Morgan, WM, White, JW, Emori, TG, Hooton, TM. Identifying patients at high risk of surgical wound infection: a simple multivariate index of patient susceptibility and wound contamination. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121:206–215.
4.Altemeier, WA, Burke, JF, Pruitt, BA, Sandusky, WR. Manual on control of infection in surgical patients. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 1984.
5.American Society of Anesthesiologists. New classification of physical status. Anesthesiology 1963; 24:11.
6.Gaynes, RP. Surgical-site infections and the NNIS SSI Risk Index: room for improvement. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000; 21:184–185.
7.Gaynes, RP. Surgical-site infections (SSI) and the NNIS Basic SSI Risk Index, part II: room for improvement. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:266–267.
8.Roy, MC, Herwaldt, LA, Embrey, R, Kuhns, K, Wenzel, RP, Perl, TM. Does the Centers for Disease Control's NNIS system risk index stratify patients undergoing cardiothoracic operations by their risk of surgical-site infection? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000; 21:186–190.
9.Killian, CA, Graffunder, EM, Vinciguerra, TJ, Venezia, RA. Risk factors for surgical-site infections following cesarean section. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001; 22:613–617.
10.Tran, TS, Jamulitrat, S, Chongsuvivatwong, V, Geater, A. Risk factors for postcesarean surgical site infection. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95:367–371.
11.Tang, R, Chen, HH, Wang, YL, et al. Risk factors for surgical site infection after elective resection of the colon and rectum: a single-center prospective study of 2,809 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 2001; 234:181–189.
12.Geubbels, ELPE. Prevention of surgical site infections through surveillance. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht University, 2002.
13.Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988; 16:128–140.
14.Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, Martone, WJ, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992; 13:606–608.
15.Sands, K, Vineyard, G, Platt, R. Surgical site infections occurring after hospital discharge. J Infect Dis 1996; 173:963–970.
16.Hanley, JA, McNeil, BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology 1982; 143:29–36.
17.Harrell, FE Jr, Lee, KL, Mark, DB. Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med 1996; 15:361–387.
18.Hanley, JA, McNeil, BJ. A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology 1983; 148:839–843.
19.Ash, AS, Shwartz, M. Evaluating the performance of risk-adjustment methods: dichotomous outcomes. In: Iezzoni, LI, ed. Risk-adjustment for measuring healthcare outcomes. 2nd ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 1997:460.
20.Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S. Applied logistic regression. 1st ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
21.Manniën, J, van der Zeeuw, AE, van den Hof, S, Wille, JC. Validation of surgical site infection surveillance in the Netherlands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 27:XXX-XX (in this issue).
22.Bunt, TJ. Vascular graft infections: an update. Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 9:225–233.
23.Richet, HM, Chidiac, C, Prat, A, et al. Analysis of risk factors for surgical wound infections following vascular surgery. Am J Med 1991; 91: 170S–172S.
24.Edwards, WH Jr, Kaiser, AB, Tapper, S, et al. Cefamandole versus cefazolin in vascular surgical wound infection prophylaxis: cost-effectiveness and risk factors. J Vasc Surg 1993; 18:470–475; discussion 475-476.
25.Miransky, J, Ruo, L, Nicoletta, S, et al. Impact of a surgeon-trained observer on accuracy of colorectal surgical site infection rates. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1100–1105.
26.Siegman-Igra, Y, Rozin, R, Simchen, E. Determinants of wound infection in gastrointestinal operations: the Israeli study of surgical infections. J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46:133–140.
27.Poss, R, Thornhill, TS, Ewald, FC, Thomas, WH, Batte, NJ, Sledge, CB. Factors influencing the incidence and outcome of infection following total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1984; 182:117–126.
28.Wong, ES. Surgical site infections. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996:154–175.
29.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, et al. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121:182–205.