1.Weinstein, RA. Nosocomial infection update. Emerg Infect Dis 1998;4: 416–420.
2.Garner, JS. The CDC Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Am J Infect Control 1993;21:160–162.
3.Kizer, KW. Establishing health care performance standards in an era of consumerism. JAMA 2001;286:1213–1217.
4.The National Quality Forum. National Voluntary Consensus Standards for Hospital Care: An Initial Performance Measure Set. Washington, DC: The National Quality Forum; 2003.
5.The National Quality Forum. Safe Practices for Better Healthcare: A Consensus Report. Washington, DC: The National Quality Forum; 2003.
6.The National Quality Forum. Policy on Endorsement of Proprietary Performance Measures. Washington, DC: The National Quality Forum; 2004. Available at QualityForum.org.
7.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. MMWR 2001;50:1–35.
8.Mangram, AJ, Horan, TC, Pearson, ML, Silver, LC, Jarvis, WR, the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:247–278.
9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. MMWR 2002;51:1–29. Erratum to p. 29, Appendix B, published in MMWR 2002;51:711.
10.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial infection rates for interhospital comparison: limitations and possible solutions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:609–621.
11.Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Release of nosocomial infection data. APIC News 1998;17:1–5.
12.Piatt, R, Yokoe, DS, Sands, KE. Automated methods for surveillance of surgical site infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:212–216.
13.Yokoe, D, Noskin, G, Cunningham, S, et al.Enhanced identification of postoperative infections among inpatients. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:1924–1930.
14.Weigelt, JA, Dryer, D, Haley, RW. The necessity and efficiency of wound surveillance after discharge. Arch Surg 1992;127:777–782.
15.Emori, TG, Edwards, JR, Culver, DH, et al.Accuracy of reporting nosocomial infections in intensive-care-unit patients to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System: a pilot study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:308–316. Erratum published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:479.
16.Jarvis, WR, Edwards, JR, Culver, DH, et al.Nosocomial infection rates in adult and pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl 3B):185S–191S.
17.Gaynes, RP, Martone, WJ, Culver, DH, et al.Comparison rates of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units in the United States. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl):192S–196S.
18.Horan, TC, Gaynes, R. Surveillance of nosocomial infections. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004:1659–1702.
19.Gaynes, RP, Culver, DH, Horan, TC, Edwards, JR, Richards, C, Toison, JS. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates in the United States, 1992-1998: the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System basic SSI risk index. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:S69–S77.
20.Culver, DH, Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP, Martone, WJ, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedures, and patient risk index. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl):152S–157S.
21.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, et al.The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:182–205.
22.Trick, W, Zagorski, B, Tokars, J, et al.Computer algorithms to detect bloodstream infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:1612–1620.
23.Samore, MH, Evans, RS, Lassen, A, et al.Surveillance of medical device-related hazards and adverse events in hospitalized patients. JAMA 2004;291:325–334.
24.Yokoe, DS, Anderson, J, Chambers, R, et al.Simplified surveillance for nosocomial bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:657–660.
25.Klevens, M, Tokars, J, Edwards, J. Simplified methods for collection of device denominators. Presented at the 14th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; April 1820, 2004; Alexandria, VA. Abstract.
26.McCall, JL, Macchiaroli, S, Brown, RB, et al.A method to track surgical site infections. Quality Management in Health Care 1998;6:52–62.
27.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Monitoring hospital-acquired infections to promote patient safety: United States, 1990-1999. MMWR 2000;49:149–153. Erratum published in MMWR 2000;49:189.
28.Raad, II, Hohn, DC, Gilbreath, BJ, et al.Prevention of central venous catheter-related infections by using maximal sterile barrier precautions during insertion. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:231–238.
29.Chaiyakunapruk, N, Veenstra, DL, Lipsky, BA, Saint, S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:792–801.
30.Bratzier, DW, Houck, PM, Surgical Infection Prevention Guidelines Writers Workgroup, et al.Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1706–1715.
31.Tablan, OC, Anderson, LJ, Besser, R, Bridges, C, Hajjeh, R. Guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated pneumonia, 2003. MMWR 2004; 53:1–36.
32.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza. MMWR 2004;53:1–40.
33.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization of healthcare workers: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 1997;46:1–42.
34.Last, JM. A Dictionary of Epidemiology, ed. 2. New York: Oxford University Press; 1988.
35. Anonymous. New classification of physical status. Anesthesiology 1963; 24:111.
36.Garner, JS. CDC guidelines for prevention of surgical wound infections, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:193–200.
37.Simmons, BP. Guideline for prevention of surgical wound infections. Infect Control 1982;3:185–196.
38.Horan, TC, Culver, DH. Comparing surgical site infection rates. In: Pfeiffer, JA, ed. APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology. Washington, DC: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology; 2000:1–7.