Skip to main content Accessibility help

Frequency of Interactions and Hand Disinfections among Anesthesiologists While Providing Anesthesia Care in the Operating Room: Induction versus Maintenance

  • L. Silvia Munoz-Price (a1) (a2) (a3), Bobbie Riley (a2), Shawn Banks (a2), Scott Eber (a2), Kristopher Arheart (a3) (a4), David A. Lubarsky (a2) and David J. Birnbach (a2) (a3)...


We evaluated the behaviors of anesthesiologists during induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Contacts with surfaces occurred a mean (±standard error) of 154.8 ± 7.7 and 60 ± 3.1 times per hour during induction and maintenance, respectively (P < .0001). Hand hygiene events were 1.8 ± 0.27 per hour during induction versus 1.19 ± 0.27 during maintenance (P = .018).

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(8):1056–1059


Corresponding author

Park Plaza West L-302, 1611 NW 12th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136-1096 (


Hide All
1. Loftus, RW, Koff, MD, Burchman, CC, et al. Transmission of pathogenic bacterial organisms in the anesthesia work area. Anesthesiology 2008;109:399407.
2. Loftus, RW, Brindeiro, BS, Kispert, DP, et al. Reduction in intraoperative bacterial contamination of peripheral intravenous tubing through the use of a passive catheter care system. Anesth Analg 2012;115:13151323.
3. Loftus, RW, Brown, JR, Koff, MD, et al. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg 2012;114:12361248.
4. Jefferson, J, Whelan, R, Dick, B, Carling, P. A novel technique for identifying opportunities to improve environmental hygiene in the operating room. AORN J 2011;93:358364.
5. Munoz-Price, LS, Birnbach, DJ, Lubarsky, DA, et al. Decreasing operating room environmental pathogen contamination through improved cleaning practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:897904.
6. Munoz-Price, LS, Lubarsky, DA, Arheart, K, et al. Interactions between anesthesiologists and the environment while providing anesthesia care in the operating room. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:922924.
7. American Society of Anesthesiologists Committee on Occupational Health Task Force on Infection Control. Recommendations for infection control for the practice of anesthesiology, 2013. Accessed October 29, 2013.
8. Sax, H, Allegranzi, B, Uckay, I, Larson, E, Boyce, J, Pittet, D. “My five moments for hand hygiene”: a user-centred design approach to understand, train, monitor and report hand hygiene. J Hosp Infect 2007;67:921.
9. Birnbach, DJ, Rosen, LF, Fitzpatrick, M, Carling, P, Arheart, KL, Munoz-Price, LS. Double gloves: a randomized trial to evaluate a simple strategy to reduce contamination in the operating room. Anesth Analg 2014 [Epub ahead of print].
10. Koff, MD, Loftus, RW, Burchman, CC, et al. Reduction in intraoperative bacterial contamination of peripheral intravenous tubing through the use of a novel device. Anesthesiology 2009;110:978985.
11. Krediet, AC, Kalkman, CJ, Bonten, MJ, Gigengack, AC, Barach, P. Hand-hygiene practices in the operating theatre: an observational study. Br J Anaesth 2011;107:553558.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed