1.Fleming-Dutra, K, Hersh, A, Shapiro, D, et al. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010–2011. JAMA 2016;315:1864–1873.
2.Harris, AM, Hicks, LA, Qaseem, A. Appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infection in adults: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med 2016;164:425–434.
3.Shulman, ST, Bisno, AL, Clegg, HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:e86–e102.
4.Chow, A, Benninger, M, Brook, I, et al. IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54:e72–e112.
5.Rosenfeld, RM, Piccirillo, JF, Chandrasekhar, SS, et al. Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015;152:S1–S39.
6.Irwin, R, Baumann, M, Bolser, D, et al. Diagnosis and management of cough executive summary: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2006;129:1S–23S.
8.Kelly, AA, Jones, MM, Echevarria, KL, et al. A report of the efforts of the Veterans Health Administration national antimicrobial stewardship initiative. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:513–520.
9.Sanchez, GV, Fleming-Dutra, KE, Roberts, RM, et al. Core elements of outpatient antibiotic stewardship. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65:1–12.
10.Jones, B, Sauer, B, Jones, M, et al. Variation in outpatient antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in the veteran population: a cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med 2015;163:73–80.
12.Madaras-Kelly, KJ, Burk, M, Caplinger, C, et al. Total duration of antimicrobial therapy in veterans hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia: results of a national medication utilization evaluation. J Hosp Med 2016;11:832–839.
13.Spivak, ES, Burk, M, Zhang, R, et al. Management of bacteriuria in Veterans Affairs hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 2017;65:910–917.
17.Centor, RM, Witherspoon, JM, Dalton, HP, et al. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making 1981;1:239–246.
18.Healthcare Analysis and Information Group (HAIG). A field unit of the Office of Strategic Planning and Analysis within the Office of the ADUSH for Policy and Planning. 2016: Page 21. Department of Veterans Affairs website. https://www.va.gov/oig/pubs/VAOIG-15-04247-111.pdf. Published 2016. Accessed January 21, 2019.
20.Madaras-Kelly, KJ, Hruza, H, Pontefract, B, et al. Trends in antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections and implementation of a provider directed intervention within the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Abstract #208. Program and abstracts of the IDWeek 2018, October 3–7, 2018; San Francisco, CA.
21.Havers, FP, Hicks, LA, Chung, JR, et al. Outpatient antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections during influenza seasons. JAMA Network Open 2018;1:e180243.
22.McCullough, AR, Pollack, AJ, Plejdrup-Hansen, M, et al. Antibiotics for acute respiratory infections in general practice: comparison of prescribing rates with guideline recommendations. Med J Aust 2017;207:65–69.
23.Hong, SY, Taur, Y, Jordan, MR, et al. Antimicrobial prescribing in the US for adult acute pharyngitis in relation to treatment guidelines. J Eval Clin Pract 2011;17:1176–1183.
24.Meyer, H, Lund, B, Heintz, B, et al. Identifying opportunities to improve guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing in veterans with acute respiratory infections or cystitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38;724–728.
25.Hueston, WJ, Jenkins, R, Mainous, AG. Does drug treatment of patients with acute bronchitis reduce additional care seeking? Evidence from the Practice Partner Research Network. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:997–1001.
26.Meeker, D, Linder, J, Fox, C, et al. Effect of behavioral interventions on inappropriate antibiotic prescribing among primary care practices: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016;315:562–570.
27.Dumkow, L, Axford, K, Suda, K, Draper, H, Brandt, K. Impact of a stewardship-focused culture follow-up initiative on the treatment of pharyngitis in the emergency department and urgent care settings. Diagnost Microbiol Infect Dis 2018;92. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.05.014.
28.Ferrat, E, Le Breton, J, Guéry, E, et al. Effects 4.5 years after an interactive GP educational seminar on antibiotic therapy for respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. Fam Pract 2016;33:192–199.
29.Gifford, J, Vaeth, E, Richards, K, et al. Decision support during electronic prescription to stem antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory infections: a long-term, quasi-experimental study. BMC Infect Dis 2017;1:528.
30.Linder, JA, Meeker, D, Fox, CR, et al. Effects of behavioral interventions on inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in primary care 12 months after stopping interventions. JAMA 2017;318:1391–1392.
31.Jones, BE, South, BR, Shao, Y, et al. Development and validation of a natural language processing tool to identify patients treated for pneumonia across VA emergency departments. Appl Clin Inform 2018;9:122–128.