1. Lessa, FC, Mu, Y, Bamberg, WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N Engl J Med 2015;372:825–834.
2. Alam, MJ, Walk, ST, Endres, BT, et al. Community environmental contamination of toxigenic Clostridium difficile
. Open Forum Infect Dis 2017;4:ofx018.
3. Chopra, T, Goldstein, EJ.
Clostridium difficile infection in long-term care facilities: a call to action for antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60 Suppl 2:S72–S76.
4. Curry, SR, Muto, CA, Schlackman, JL, et al. Use of multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis genotyping to determine the role of asymptomatic carriers in Clostridium difficile transmission. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:1094–1102.
5. Ziakas, PD, Joyce, N, Zacharioudakis, IM, et al. Prevalence and impact of Clostridium difficile infection in elderly residents of long-term care facilities, 2011: a nationwide study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e4187.
6. Wust, J, Sullivan, NM, Hardegger, U, Wilkins, TD. Investigation of an outbreak of antibiotic-associated colitis by various typing methods. J Clin Microbiol 1982;16:1096–1101.
7. Lemee, L, Dhalluin, A, Testelin, S, et al. Multiplex PCR targeting TPI (triose phosphate isomerase), tcdA (toxin A), and tcdB (toxin B) genes for toxigenic culture of Clostridium difficile
. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:5710–5714.
8. Martinson, JN, Broadaway, S, Lohman, E, et al. Evaluation of portability and cost of a fluorescent PCR ribotyping protocol for Clostridium difficile epidemiology. J Clin Microbiol 2015;53:1192–1197.
9. Alam, MJ, Anu, A, Walk, ST, Garey, KW. Investigation of potentially pathogenic Clostridium difficile contamination in household environs. Anaerobe 2014;27:31–33.
10. Bidet, P, Barbut, F, Lalande, V, Burghoffer, B, Petit, JC. Development of a new PCR-ribotyping method for Clostridium difficile based on ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1999;175:261–266.
11. van den Berg, RJ, Kuijper, EJ, van Coppenraet, LE, Claas, EC. Rapid diagnosis of toxinogenic Clostridium difficile in faecal samples with internally controlled real-time PCR. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12:184–186.
12. Broukhanski, G, Low, DE, Pillai, DR. Modified multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for rapid identification and typing of Clostridium difficile during institutional outbreaks. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:1983–1986.
13. Broukhanski, G, Simor, A, Pillai, DR. Defining criteria to interpret multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis to aid Clostridium difficile outbreak investigation. J Med Microbiol 2011;60:1095–1100.
14. Langmead, B, Salzberg, SL. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2. Nat Methods 2012;9:357–359.
15. Li, H, Handsaker, B, Wysoker, A, et al. The sequence alignment/map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 2009;25:2078–2079.
16. Kumar, N, Miyajima, F, He, M, et al. Genome-based infection tracking reveals dynamics of Clostridium difficile transmission and disease recurrence. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:746–752.
17. Gupta, SK, Padmanabhan, BR, Diene, SM, et al. ARG-ANNOT, a new bioinformatic tool to discover antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial genomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014;58:212–220.
18. He, M, Miyajima, F, Roberts, P, et al. Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile
. Nat Genet 2013;45:109–113.
19. Dubberke, ER, Butler, AM, Reske, KA, et al. Attributable outcomes of endemic Clostridium difficile-associated disease in nonsurgical patients. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14:1031–1038.
20. Guerrero, DM, Nerandzic, MM, Jury, LA, Chang, S, Jump, RL, Donskey, CJ.
Clostridium difficile infection in a Department of Veterans Affairs long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:513–515.
21. Archbald-Pannone, LR, Boone, JH, Carman, RJ, Lyerly, DM, Guerrant, RL.
Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is most prevalent among inpatients admitted from long-term care facilities. J Hosp Infect 2014;88:218–221.
22. Yui, S, Ali, S, Muzslay, M, Jeanes, A, Wilson, APR. Identification of Clostridium difficile reservoirs in the patient environment and efficacy of aerial hydrogen peroxide decontamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1487–1492.