1.Hay, RJ, Adriaans, BM. Bacterial infections. In: Champion, RH, Burton, JL, Burns, DA, Breathnach, SM, eds. Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling Textbook of Dermatology, ed. 6. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Science; 1998:1097–1142.
2.Horn, WA, Larson, EL, McGinley, KJ, Leyden, JJ. Microbial flora on the hands of health care personnel: difference in composition and antibacterial resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1988;9:189–193.
3.Duncan, WC, McBride, ME, Knox, JM. Bacterial flora: the role of environmental factors. J Invest Dermatol 1969;52:479–484.
4.Bonassoli, LA, Svidzinski, TIE. Influence of the hospital environment on yeast colonization in nursing students. Med Mycol 2002;40:311–313.
5.Strausbaugh, LJ, Sewell, DL, Ward, TT, Pfaller, MA, Heitzman, T, Tjoelker, R. High frequency of yeast carriage on hands of hospital personnel. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:2299–2300.
6.Larson, EL, Hughes, CA, Pyrek, JD, Sparks, SM, Cagatay, EU, Bartkus, JM. Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1996;26:513–521.
7.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2003. Approved standard M7-A6.
8.Olive, DM, Bean, P. Principles and applications of methods for DNA-based typing of microbial organisms. J Clin Microbiol 1999;36:1661–1669.
9.Tenover, FC, Arbeit, RD, Goering, RV, et al.Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:2233–2239.
10.Lee, YL, Cesario, T, Lee, R, et al.Colonization by Staphylococcus species resistant to methicillin or quinolone on the hands of medical personnel in a skilled-nursing facility. Am J Infect Control 1995;22:346–351.
11.McBride, ME, Montes, LF, Fahlberg, WJ, Knox, JM. Microbial flora of nurses' hands. Int J Dermatol 1974;13:197–204.
12.Duncan, IBR, Collins, AM, Neelin, EM, Roy, TE. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus pyogenes by student nurses. CMAJ 1957;77:1001–1009.
13.Cespedes, C, Miller, M, Quagliarello, B, Vavagiakis, P, Klein, RS, Lowy, FD. Differences between Staphylococcus aureus isolates from medical and nonmedical hospital personnel. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:2594–2597.
14.Namura, S, Nishijima, S, Toshiaki, H, Yasuo, A. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nostril anteriors and subungual spaces of the hand: comparative study of medical staff, patients, and controls. J Dermatol 1995;22:175–180.
15.Remington-Perdreau, F, Stefanik, D, Peters, G, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus on the hands of health care workers: a route of transmission or a source? J Hasp Infect 1995;31:195–203.
16.Guenthner, SH, Hendley, JO, Wenzel, RP. Gram-negative bacilli as non-transient flora on the hands of hospital personnel. J Clin Microbiol 1987;25:488–490.
17.Larson, EL. Persistent carriage of gram-negative bacteria on hands. Am J Infect Control 1981;9:112–119.
18.Milisavljevic, V, Wu, F, Larson, E, Della-Latta, P, Saiman, L. Strain relat-edness of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates recovered from neonates and healthcare workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies; May 3-6, 2003; Seattle, WA.
19.Oie, S, Hosokawa, I, Kamiya, A. Contamination of room door handles by methicillin-sensitive/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 2002;51:140–143.
20.Bures, S, Fishbain, JT, Uyehara, CFT, Parker, JM, Berg, BW. Computer keyboards and faucet handles as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens in the intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:465–471.
21.Wright, IMR, Orr, H, Porter, C. Stethoscope contamination in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 1995;29:65–68.
22.Zembrzuska-Sadkowska, E. The danger of infections of the hospitalized patients with the microorganisms present in preparations and in the hospital environment. Acta Pol Pharm 1995;52:173–178.
23.Neely, AN, Maley, MP. Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:724–726.
24.Hedin, G. Staphylococcus epidermidis: hospital epidemiology and the detection of methicillin resistance. Scand J Infect Dis 1993;90(suppl):1–59.
25.Sultana, B, Cimiotti, J, Aiello, A, Sloan, D, Larson, E. Effect of age and race on skin condition and bacterial counts on hands of neonatal ICU nurses. Heart Lung 2003;32:283–289.
26.Allen, KD, Anson, JJ, Parsons, LA, Frost, NG. Staff carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA 15) and the home environment: a case report. J Hosp Infect 1997;35:307–311.