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Effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C Room Disinfection on Preventing Healthcare-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infection

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2020

Michihiko Goto
Affiliation:
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
Erin Balkenende
Affiliation:
Center for Access & Delivery Research & Evaluation (CADRE), Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System
Gosia Clore
Affiliation:
University of Iowa
Rajeshwari Nair
Affiliation:
The University of Iowa
Loretta Simbartl
Affiliation:
Department of Veterans Affairs
Martin Evans
Affiliation:
University of Kentucky School of Medicine/VHA
Nasia Safdar
Affiliation:
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Eli Perencevich
Affiliation:
University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine
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Abstract

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Background: Enhanced terminal room cleaning with ultraviolet C (UVC) disinfection has become more commonly used as a strategy to reduce the transmission of important nosocomial pathogens, including Clostridioides difficile, but the real-world effectiveness remains unclear. Objectives: We aimed to assess the association of UVC disinfection during terminal cleaning with the incidence of healthcare-associated C. difficile infection and positive test results for C. difficile within the nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VHA) System. Methods: Using a nationwide survey of VHA system acute-care hospitals, information on UV-C system utilization and date of implementation was obtained. Hospital-level incidence rates of clinically confirmed hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI) and positive test results with recent healthcare exposures (both hospital-onset [HO-LabID] and community-onset healthcare-associated [CO-HA-LabID]) at acute-care units between January 2010 and December 2018 were obtained through routine surveillance with bed days of care (BDOC) as the denominator. We analyzed the association of UVC disinfection with incidence rates of HO-CDI, HO-Lab-ID, and CO-HA-LabID using a nonrandomized, stepped-wedge design, using negative binomial regression model with hospital-specific random intercept, the presence or absence of UVC disinfection use for each month, with baseline trend and seasonality as explanatory variables. Results: Among 143 VHA acute-care hospitals, 129 hospitals (90.2%) responded to the survey and were included in the analysis. UVC use was reported from 42 hospitals with various implementation start dates (range, June 2010 through June 2017). We identified 23,021 positive C. difficile test results (HO-Lab ID: 5,014) with 16,213 HO-CDI and 24,083,252 BDOC from the 129 hospitals during the study period. There were declining baseline trends nationwide (mean, −0.6% per month) for HO-CDI. The use of UV-C had no statistically significant association with incidence rates of HO-CDI (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.032; 95% CI, 0.963–1.106; P = .65) or incidence rates of healthcare-associated positive C. difficile test results (HO-Lab). Conclusions: In this large quasi-experimental analysis within the VHA System, the enhanced terminal room cleaning with UVC disinfection was not associated with the change in incidence rates of clinically confirmed hospital-onset CDI or positive test results with recent healthcare exposure. Further research is needed to understand reasons for lack of effectiveness, such as understanding barriers to utilization.

Funding: None

Disclosures: None

Type
Oral Presentations
Copyright
© 2020 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.
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