1.Lestner, JM, Versporten, A, Doerholt, K, et al.Systemic antifungal prescribing in neonates and children: outcomes from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015;59:782–789.
2.Valerio, M, Rodriguez-Gonzalez, CG, Munoz, P, et al.Evaluation of antifungal use in a tertiary care institution: antifungal stewardship urgently needed. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014;69:1993–1999.
3.Prasad, PA, Coffin, SE, Leckerman, KH, Walsh, TJ, Zaoutis, TE.Pediatric antifungal utilization: new drugs, new trends. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008;27:1083–1088.
4.Downes, KJ, Ellis, D, Lavigne, S, Bryan, M, Zaoutis, TE, Fisher, BT.The use of echinocandins in hospitalized children in the United States. Med Mycol 2018. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myy084.
5.Santiago-Garcia, B, Rincon-Lopez, EM, Ponce Salas, B, et al.Effect of an intervention to improve the prescription of antifungals in pediatric hematology-oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020;67:e27963. doi: 10.1002/pbc.27963.
6.Warris, A, European Paediatric Mycology Network. The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN): towards a better understanding and management of fungal infections in children. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 2016;10:7–9.
7.Goldman, JL, Ross, RK, Lee, BR, et al.Variability in antifungal and antiviral use in hospitalized children. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:743–746.
8.Stultz, JS, Kohinke, R, Pakyz, AL.Variability in antifungal utilization among neonatal, pediatric, and adult inpatients in academic medical centers throughout the United States of America. BMC Infect Dis 2018;18:501.
9.Ananda-Rajah, MR, Cheng, A, Morrissey, CO, et al.Attributable hospital cost and antifungal treatment of invasive fungal diseases in high-risk hematology patients: an economic modeling approach. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55:1953–1960.
10.de Souza, MC, Santos, AG, Reis, AM.Adverse drug reactions in patients receiving systemic antifungal therapy at a high-complexity hospital. J Clin Pharmacol 2016;56:1507–1515.
11.Shah, DN, Yau, R, Lasco, TM, et al.Impact of prior inappropriate fluconazole dosing on isolation of fluconazole-nonsusceptible Candida species in hospitalized patients with candidemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56:3239–3243.
12.Hersh, AL, De Lurgio, SA, Thurm, C, et al.Antimicrobial stewardship programs in freestanding children’s hospitals. Pediatrics 2015;135:33–39.
13.Kronman, MP, Banerjee, R, Duchon, J, et al.Expanding existing antimicrobial stewardship programs in pediatrics: what comes next. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018;7:241–248.
14.Barlam, TF, Cosgrove, SE, Abbo, LM, et al.Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program: guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:e51–e77.
15.Hamdy, RF, Zaoutis, TE, Seo, SK.Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics. Virulence 2017;8:658–672.
16.Honarvar, B, Bagheri Lankarani, K, Taghavi, M, Vahedi, G, Mortaz, E.Biomarker-guided antifungal stewardship policies for patients with invasive candidiasis. Curr Med Mycol 2018;4:37–44.
17.Menichetti, F, Bertolino, G, Sozio, E, et al.Impact of infectious diseases consultation as a part of an antifungal stewardship programme on candidemia outcome in an Italian tertiary-care, university hospital. J Chemother 2018;30:304–309.
18.Hart, E, Nguyen, M, Allen, M, Clark, CM, Jacobs, DM.A systematic review of the impact of antifungal stewardship interventions in the United States. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2019;18:24.
19.Mondain, V, Lieutier, F, Hasseine, L, et al.A 6-year antifungal stewardship programme in a teaching hospital. Infection 2013;41:621–628.
20.Valerio, M, Munoz, P, Rodriguez, CG, et al.Antifungal stewardship in a tertiary-care institution: a bedside intervention. Clin Microbiol Infect 2015;21:492, e491–499.
21.Stenehjem, E, Hersh, AL, Buckel, WR, et al.Impact of implementing antibiotic stewardship programs in 15 small hospitals: a cluster-randomized intervention. Clin Infect Dis 2018;67:525–532.
22.Tamma, PD, Avdic, E, Keenan, JF, et al.What is the more effective antibiotic stewardship intervention: preprescription authorization or postprescription review with feedback? Clin Infect Dis 2017;64:537–543.
23.Hersh, AL, Beekmann, SE, Polgreen, PM, Zaoutis, TE, Newland, JG.Antimicrobial stewardship programs in pediatrics. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:1211–1217.
24.Johannsson, B, Beekmann, SE, Srinivasan, A, Hersh, AL, Laxminarayan, R, Polgreen, PM.Improving antimicrobial stewardship: the evolution of programmatic strategies and barriers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:367–374.
25.Newland, JG, Gerber, JS, Weissman, SJ, et al.Prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial stewardship programs at freestanding children’s hospitals in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:265–271.
26.Munoz, P, Bouza, E, COMIC (Collaboration Group on Mycosis) study group. The current treatment landscape: the need for antifungal stewardship programmes. J Antimicrob Chemother 2016;71 suppl 2:ii5–ii12.
27.Ross, RK, Hersh, AL, Kronman, MP, Newland, JG, Gerber, JS.Cost of antimicrobial therapy across US children’s hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:1242–1244.
28.Ferreras-Antolin, L, Irwin, A, Atra, A, et al.Neonatal antifungal consumption is dominated by prophylactic use; outcomes from the Pediatric Antifungal Stewardship: Optimizing Antifungal Prescription Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019;38:1219–1223.
29.Park, WB, Kim, NH, Kim, KH, et al.The effect of therapeutic drug monitoring on safety and efficacy of voriconazole in invasive fungal infections: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:1080–1087.
30.Lachenmayr, SJ, Berking, S, Horns, H, Strobach, D, Ostermann, H, Berger, K.Antifungal treatment in haematological and oncological patients: need for quality assessment in routine care. Mycoses 2018;61:464–471.
31.Soler-Palacin, P, Frick, MA, Martin-Nalda, A, et al.Voriconazole drug monitoring in the management of invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised children: a prospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012;67:700–706.
32.Cordonnier, C, Pautas, C, Maury, S, et al.Empirical versus preemptive antifungal therapy for high-risk, febrile, neutropenic patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1042–1051.
33.Hebart, H, Klingspor, L, Klingebiel, T, et al.A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing PCR-based and empirical treatment with liposomal amphotericin B in patients after allo-SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2009;43:553–561.
34.Morrissey, CO, Chen, SC, Sorrell, TC, et al.Galactomannan and PCR versus culture and histology for directing use of antifungal treatment for invasive aspergillosis in high-risk haematology patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2013;13:519–528.
35.Forsberg, K, Woodworth, K, Walters, M, et al.Candida auris: The recent emergence of a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Med Mycol 2019;57:1–12.