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Compliance with the World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Technique: A Prospective Observational Study

  • Sarah Tschudin-Sutter (a1), Daniel Sepulcri (a1), Marc Dangel (a1), Heinz Schuhmacher (a1) and Andreas F. Widmer (a1)...


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Dr. Andreas F. Widmer, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland (


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Previous presentation of the data: The abstract was presented at the 24th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Barcelona, Spain 2014 and at the Meeting of the Swiss Society for Infectious Diseases, Aarau, Switzerland 2014.



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1. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, first global patient safety challenge: clean care is safer care. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2009.
2. Carabin, H, Gyorkos, TW, Soto, JC, Joseph, L, Payment, P, Collet, JP. Effectiveness of a training program in reducing infections in toddlers attending day care centers. Epidemiology 1999;10:219227.
3. Widmer, AE, Dangel, M. Alcohol-based handrub: evaluation of technique and microbiological efficacy with international infection control professionals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:207209.
4. Kramer, A, Rudolph, P, Kampf, G, Pittet, D. Limited efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels. Lancet 2002;359:14891490.
5. Ayliffe, GA, Babb, JR, Quoraishi, AH. A test for ‘hygienic’ hand disinfection. J Clin Pathol 1978;31:923928.
6. European standard EN 1500. Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Hygienic handrub. Test method and requirements. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization, 1997.
7. Widmer, AF, Conzelmann, M, Tomic, M, Frei, R, Stranden, AM. Introducing alcohol-based hand rub for hand hygiene: the critical need for training. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:5054.
8. Tschudin Sutter, S, Frei, R, Dangel, M, Widmer, AF. Effect of teaching recommended World Health Organization technique on the use of alcohol-based hand rub by medical students. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:11941195.
9. Eckmanns, T, Bessert, J, Behnke, M, Gastmeier, P, Ruden, H. Compliance with antiseptic hand rub use in intensive care units: the Hawthorne effect. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:931934.


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