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Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

  • Judith A. Anesi (a1), Ebbing Lautenbach (a1) (a2) (a3), Irving Nachamkin (a4), Charles Garrigan (a4), Warren B. Bilker (a2) (a3), Mary Wheeler (a2) (a3), Pam Tolomeo (a2) (a3) and Jennifer H. Han (a1) (a2) (a3)...



To evaluate risk factors for and molecular characteristics of community-onset extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae (EB) urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system.


Case-control study.


All patients presenting to the emergency department or outpatient practices with EB UTIs from December 21, 2010, through April 22, 2013, were included. Case patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Control patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched 1:1 on study year.


Risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI were assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. A subset of case isolates was evaluated for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.


A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, of which 151 were cases. On multivariable analysis, risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use in the prior 6 months (odds ratio, 2.40 [95% CI, 1.22–4.70]; P=.01), older age (1.03 [1.01–1.04]; P<.001), diabetes (2.91 [1.32–6.41]; P=.008), and presentation to the emergency department ( 2.42 [1.31–4.46]; P=.005). The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among 120 case isolates was 52% CTX-M, 29% TEM, 20% OXA, and 13% SHV. The prevalence of AmpC was 25%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the CTX-M Escherichia coli isolates showed no distinct clusters.


Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, older age, diabetes, and presentation to the emergency department were associated with community-onset ESC-R EB UTI. There was a high prevalence of CTX-M among our community isolates. Further studies are needed to determine strategies to limit emergence of these organisms in the community.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1433–1439


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Judith A. Anesi, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, 3 Silverstein, Ste E, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (


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Presented in part: IDWeek 2015; San Diego, California; October 10, 2015, abstract 1803.



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