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  • Carl W. Armstrong (a1), C. Glen Mayhall (a2), Kathy B. Miller (a3), Heber H. Newsome (a3), Harvey J. Sugerman (a3), Harry P. Dalton (a3), Gaye O. Hall (a3) and Sally Hunsberger (a3)...
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1. Armstrong, CW, Mayhall, CG, Miller, RB, et al. Prospective study of catheter replacement and other risk factors for infection of hyperalimentation catheters. I Infect Dis. 1986:154:808816.
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9. Sitges-Serra, A, Liñares, J, Pérez, JL, Jaurrieta, E, Lorente, L. A randomized trial on the effect of tubing changes on hub contamination and catheter sepsis during parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1985;9:322325.
10. Capell, S, Liñares, J, Sitges-Serra, A. Catheter sepsis due to coagulase- negative staphylococci in patients on total parenteral nutrition. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986;5:4042.
11. Segura, M, Alia, C, Oms, L, Sancho, JJ, Torres-Rodriguez, JM, Sitges-Serra, A. In vitro bacteriological study of a new hub model for intravascular catheters and infusion equipment. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27:26562659.
12. Segura, M, Alia, C, Valverde, J, Franch, G, Torres-Rodriguez, JM, Sitges-Serra, A. Assessment of a new hub design and the semiquantitative catheter culture method using an in vivo experimental model of catheter sepsis. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:25512554.
13. Maki, DG, Ringer, M. Evaluation of dressing regimens for prevention of infection with peripheral intravenous catheters. Gauze, a transparent polyurethane dressing, and an iodophor-transparent dressing. JAMA. 1987;258:23962403.
14. Flowers, RH III, Schwenzer, KJ, Kopel, RF, Fisch, ME Tucker, SI, Farr, BM. Efficacy of an attachable subcutaneous cuff for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infection. A randomized, controlled trial. JAMA. 1989;261878883.
15. Stotter, AT, Ward, H, Waterfield, AH, Hilton, J, Sim, AJW. Junctional care: the key to prevention of catheter sepsis in intravenous feeding. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1987;11:159162.
16. Snydman, DR, Pober, BR, Murrary, SA, Gorbea, HE Majka, JA, Perry, LK. Predictive value of surveillance skin cultures in total parenteral nutrition-related infection. Lancet. 1982;ii:13851388.
17. Bjornson, HS, Colley, R, Bower, RH, Duty, VP, Schwartz-Fulton, JT, Fischer, JE. Association between microorganism growth at the catheter insertion site and colonization of the catheter in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. Surgery. 1982;92:720777.
18. Sitzmann, JV, Townsend, TR, Siler, MC, Bartlett, JG. Septic and technical complications of central venous catheterization. A prospective study of 200 consecutive patients. Ann Surg. 1985;202:766770.
19. Maki, DG, Cobb, L, Garman, JK, Shapiro, JM, Ringer, M, Helgerson, RB. An attachable silver-impregnated cuff for prevention of infection with central venous catheters: a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Am J Med. 1988;85:307314.
20. Sitges-Serra, A, Liñares, J, Garau, J. Catheter sepsis: the clue is the hub. Surgery. 1985;97:355357.
21. Francioli, P, Rime, B, Siegrist, H, Bille, J. Importance of the hub as a portal of entry for IV catheter colonization and infection. Presented at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; October 4–5, 1987, New York, NY.
22. Collignon, PJ, Soni, N, Pearson, IY, Woods, WP, Munro, R, Sorrell, TC. Is semiquantitative culture of central vein catheter tips useful in the diagnosis of catheter-associated bacteremia? J Clin Microbiol. 1986;24:532535.
23. Cooper, GL, Hopkins, CC. Rapid diagnosis of intravascular catheter-associated infection by direct gram staining of catheter segments. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:11421147.
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25. Maki, DG, Band, JD. A comparative study of polyantibiotic and iodophor ointments in prevention of vascular catheter-related infection. Am J Med. 1981;70:739744.

The authors were asked to respond to this letter

  • Carl W. Armstrong (a1), C. Glen Mayhall (a2), Kathy B. Miller (a3), Heber H. Newsome (a3), Harvey J. Sugerman (a3), Harry P. Dalton (a3), Gaye O. Hall (a3) and Sally Hunsberger (a3)...

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