Cohen, ML. Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post-antimicrobial era. Science
Craig, WA, Uman, SJ, Shaw, WR, Ramgopal, V, Eagan, LL, Leopold, ET. Hospital use of antimicrobial drugs: survey at 19 hospitals and results of antimicrobial control program. Ann Intern Med
Hecker, MT, Aron, DC, Patel, NP, Lehmann, MK, Donskey, CJ. Unnecessary use of antimicrobials in hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med
2003; 163: 972–978.
Office of Technology Assessment. Impacts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (OTA-H-629). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1995.
McGowan, JE. Economic impact of antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis
Goldmann, DA, Weinstein, RA, Wenzel, RP, et al. Strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals. JAMA
Shlaes, DM, Gerding, DN, John, JF, et al. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of American and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance: guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Clin Infect Dis
Lawton, RM, Fridkin, SK, Gaynes, RP, et al. Practices to improve antimicrobial use at 47 US hospitals: the status of the 1997 SHEA/IDSA position paper recommendations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Lesar, TS, Briceland, LL. Survey of antibiotic control policies in university-affiliated teaching institutions. Ann Pharmacother
America's best hospitals. U.S. News and World Report
America's best hospitals. U.S. News and World Report
Comarow, A. America's best hospitals. U.S. News and World Report
Fridkin, SK, Steward, CD, Edwards, JR, et al, and Project ICARE. Surveillance of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in United States hospitals: Project ICARE Phase 2. Clin Infect Dis
Schiff, GD, Wisniewski, M, Bult, J, Parada, JP, Aggarwal, H, Schwartz, DN. Improving inpatient antibiotic prescribingdnsights from participation in a national collaborative. Jt Comm J Qual Improv
Gross, R, Morgan, AS, Kinky, DE, Weiner, M, Gibson, GA, Fishman, NO. Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes. Clin Infect Dis
Frank, MO, Batteiger, BE, Sorensen, SJ, et al. Decrease in expenditure and selected nosocomial infections following implementation of an antimicrobial—prescribing improvement program. Clin Perform Qual Health Care
1997; 5: 180–188.
Fraser, GL, Stogsdill, P, Dickens, JD, Wennberg, DE, Smith, RP, Prato, S. Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patients safety and economic outcomes. Arch Intern Med
White, AC, Atmar, RL, Wilson, J, Cate, TR, Stager, CE, Greenberg, SB. Effects of requiring prior authorization for selected antimicrobials: expenditures, susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes. Clin Infect Dis
Gould, IM. A review of the role of antibiotic policies in the control of antibiotic resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother
Harris, AD, Karchmer, TB, Carmeli, Y, Samore, MH. Methodological principles of case-control studies that analyzed risk factors for antibiotic resistance: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis
McGowan, JE. Do intensive hospital antibiotic control programs prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Gaynes, R. The impact of antimicrobial use on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Infect Dis Clin North Am
Lipsitch, M, Samore, MH. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis
Gerding, DN, Larson, TA, Hughes, RA, Weiler, M, Shanholtzer, C, Peterson, LR. Aminoglycoside resistance and aminoglycoside usage: ten years of experience in one hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Friedrich, LV, White, RL, Bosso, JA. Impact of use of multiple antimicrobials on changes in susceptibility of gram-negative aerobes. Clin Infect Dis
Rahal, JJ, Urban, C, Horn, D, et al. Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella
Paladino, JA. Economic justification of antimicrobial management programs: implications of antimicrobial resistance. Am J Health Syst Pharm
Rifenburg, RP, Paladino, JA, Hanson, SC, Tuttle, JA, Schentag, JJ. Benchmark analysis of strategies hospitals use to control antimicrobial expenditures. Am J Health Syst Pharm
Burke, JP. Antibiotic Resistance—squeezing the balloon?
Linden, P, Paladino, JA, Saul, M, et al. The economic impact of bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a case-control study. Paper presented at the 38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 24-27, 1998; San Diego, CA. Abstract 0-7.
Welch, KE, Goff, DA, Fish, DN, et al. A multicenter economic analysis of bacteremia caused by methicillin resistant Staph aureus. Paper presented at the 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 26-29, 1999; San Francisco, CA. Abstract 1865.
Schentag, JJ, Ballow, CH, Fritz, AL, et al. Changes in antimicrobial agent usage resulting from interactions among clinical pharmacy, the infectious disease division, and the microbiology laboratory. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis
Cabana, MD, Rand, CS, Powe, NR, et al. Why don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA
Singer, MV, Haft, R, Barlam, T, Aronson, M, Shafer, A, Sands, KE. Vancomycin control measures at a tertiary care hospital: impact of interventions on volume and patterns of use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Davis, D, Thomson O'Brien, MA, Freemantle, N, Wolf, FM, Mazmanian, P, Taylor-Vaisey, A. Impact of formal continuing medical education. JAMA
Solomon, DH, Van Houten, L, Glynn, RJ, et al. Academic detailing to improve use of broad spectrum antibiotics at an academic medical center. Arch Intern Med
John, JF, Fishman, NO. Programmatic role of the infectious diseases physician in controlling antimicrobial costs in the hospital. Clin Infect Dis
Evans, RS, Pestotnik, SL, Classen, DC, et al. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents. N Engl J Med
Teich, JM, Merchia, PR, Schmiz, JL, Kuperman, GJ, Spurr, CD, Bates, DW. Effects of computerized physician order entry on prescribing practices. Arch Intern Med
The search for good antimicrobial stewardship. Jt Comm J Qual Improv
Soumerai, SB, Avorn, J, Taylor, WC, Wessels, M, Maher, D, Hawley, SL. Improving choice of prescribed antibiotics through concurrent reminders in an educational order form. Medical Care
Quale, JM, Landman, D, Bradford, PA, et al
Molecular epidemiology of a citywide outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Clin Infect Dis