1.Greenblatt, J, Fischer, RA. Complications of cardiac surgery: infections. In: Kotler, MN, Alfieri, A, eds. Cardiac and Noncardiac Complications of Open Heart Surgery: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Futura; 1992:145–176.
2.Kollef, MH, Sharpless, L, Vlasnik, J, Pasque, C, Murphy, D, Fraser, V. The impact of nosocomial infections on patient outcomes following cardiac surgery. Chest 1997; 112:666–675.
3.Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. In: Olmsted, RN, ed. APIC Infection Control and Applied Epidemiology: Principles and Practice. St. Louis: Mosby; 1996: A1–A20.
4.Surgical site infection (SSI) rates in the United States, 1992-1998: the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system basic SSI risk index. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:S69–S77.
5.Kluytman, JAJW, Mouton, JW, Maat, APWM, Manders, MAAJ, Michel, MF, Wagenvoort, JHT. Surveillance of postoperative infections in thoracic surgery. J Hosp Infect 1994; 27:139–147.
6.Rebello, MH, Bernal, JM, Llorca, J, Rabasa, JM, Revuelta, JM. Nosocomial Infections in patients having cardiovascular operations: a multivariate analysis of risk factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112:908–913.
7.NNIS National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, data summary from January 1992 to June 2002, issued August 2002. Am J Infect Control 2002; 30:458–475.
8.Russo, PL, Spelman, DW. A new surgical-site infection risk index using risk factors identified by multivariate analysis for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23:372–376.
9.Kohli, M, Yuan, L, Escobar, M, et al. A risk index for sternal surgical wound infection after cardiovascular surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:17–25.
10.Vuorisalo, S, Haukipuro, K, Pokela, R, Syrjala, H. Risk features for surgical-site infections in coronary artery bypass surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998; 19:229–33.
11.Bellchambers, J, Haris, JM, Cullinan, P, Gaya, H, Pepper, JR. A prospective study of wound infection in coronary artery surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1999; 15:45–50.
12.Rupp, ME. Mediastinitis. In: Mandell, GL, Bennett, JE, Dolin, R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005:170–178.
13.El Oakley, RM, Wright, JE. Postoperative mediastinitis: classification and management. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61:1030–1036.
14.Bundy, JK, Gonzalez, VR, Barnard, BM, Hardy, RJ, DuPont, HL. Gender risk differences for surgical site infections among a primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery cohort. Am J Infect Control 2003; 31. Poster 151.
15.Kollef, MH, Copeland, M, Senkowski, C, et al. Macromastia as a factor in sternal wound dehiscence following cardiac surgery: management combining chest wall reconstruction and reduction mammoplasty. J Card Surg 1992; 7:275–278.
16.Ridderstolpe, L, Gill, H, Granfeldt, H, Ahlfeldt, H, Rutberg, H. Superficial and deep sternal wound complications: incidence, risk factors and mortality. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 20:1168–1175.
17.Zacharias, A, Habib, RH. Factors predisposing to median sternotomy complications. Deep vs superficial infection. Chest 1996; 110:1173–1178.
18.Olsen, M, Lock-Buckley, P, Hopkins, D, Polish, LB, Sundt, TM, Fraser, VJ. The risk factors for deep and superficial chest surgical-site infections after coronary artery bypass graft surgery are different. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002; 124:136–145.
19.Trick, WE, Scheckler, WE, Tokars, JI, et al. Modifiable risk factors associated with deep sternal surgical site infection after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119:108–114.
20.Mangram, AJ, Horan, TC, Pearson, ML, Silver, LC, Jarvis, WR, the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:250–278.
21.Clark, RE, Amos, WC, Higgins, V, Bemberg, KF, Weldon, CS. Infection control in cardiac surgery. Surgery 1976; 79:89–96.
22.Ferrazzi, P, Allen, R, Crupi, G, Reyes, I, Parenzan, L, Maisonnet, M. Reduction of infection after cardiac surgery: a clinical trial. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 42:321–325.