Published online by Cambridge University Press: 02 January 2015
To investigate whether rhinovirus infection leads to increased airborne dispersal of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).
Prospective nonrandomized intervention trial.
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
Twelve nasal Staphylococcus aureus-CoNS carriers among 685 students screened for S. aureus nasal carriage.
Participants were studied for airborne dispersal of CoNS in a chamber under three conditions (street clothes, sterile gown with a mask, and sterile gown without a mask). After 2 days of pre-exposure measurements, volunteers were inoculated with a rhinovirus and observed for 14 days. Daily quantitative nasal and skin cultures for CoNS and nasal cultures for rhinovirus were performed. In addition, assessment of cold symptoms was performed daily, mucous samples were collected, and serum titers before and after rhinovirus inoculation were obtained. Sneezing, coughing, and talking events were recorded during chamber sessions.
All participants had at least one nasal wash positive for rhinovirus and 10 developed a symptomatic cold. Postexposure, there was a twofold increase in airborne CoNS (P = .0004), peaking at day 12. CoNS dispersal was reduced by wearing a gown (57% reduction, P < .0001), but not a mask (P = .7). Nasal and skin CoNS colonization increased after rhinovirus infection (P<.05).
We believe this is the first demonstration that a viral pathogen in the upper airways can increase airborne dispersal of CoNS in nasal S. aureus carriers. Gowns, gloves, and caps had a protective effect, whereas wearing a mask did not further reduce airborne spread.
Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.