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The New Era Workplace Relationships: Is Social Exchange Theory Still Relevant?

  • Lily Chernyak-Hai (a1) and Edna Rabenu (a1)


In this article, we argue that changes in workplace characteristics over the last few decades may affect work relationships and call for adjustments in the traditional theoretical framework used to understand them. Since the last quarter of the 20th century, there have been theories regarding changes in labor relationships following technological, political, globalization, and economical changes. However, we examine the changes in light of psychological theories rather than labor or industrial approaches. We review four main areas where social exchange theory (SET) has been implemented, address recent changes that challenge the traditional SET perspective, and propose alternative models. We refer to these models as “hybrid” as they integrate traditional SET premises with new-era workplace characteristics. First, we describe several changes in workplace characteristics. Next, we review some of the most conventional applications of SET to work relationships. Finally, we critically examine whether this theory meets the requirements of work relationships in the new world of work and conclude by arguing that SET needs to be adjusted to reflect the assumption that frequent changes in employee and organizational characteristics in the new workplaces require similar frequent adjustments in exchange relationships.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lily Chernyak-Hai, School of Behavioral Sciences, Netanya Academic College, P. O. Box 120, Netanya 4223587, Israel. E-mail:


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The New Era Workplace Relationships: Is Social Exchange Theory Still Relevant?

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