Many governments in the twentieth century have attempted to transform their societies. Emerging states have faced the formidable task of nation-building, that is, of creating national unity and loyalty among citizens unaccustomed to living and working together within the same political system. New democracies have tried to educate new generations of “democratic” citizens, while authoritarian regimes have sought to indoctrinate their citizens in their ideologies, or simply in the habits of obedience. Leaders across the political spectrum have viewed the state as a tool for building a new and better society, with the schools as its foundation. In interwar Europe, the Soviet Union, National Socialist Germany, and Fascist Italy undertook the education of a new generation of citizens with unprecedented thoroughness. Their governments strengthened their control over school curricula, textbooks, and teachers through strict censorship and compulsory youth organizations.