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Institutionalization and Education in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

  • Thomas Bender, Peter D. Hall, Thomas L. Haskell and Paul H. Mattingly


[Editor's Note: The viewpoints which follow represent a reconstructed transcript of a symposium held at the annual American Educational Research Association meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, April 8, 1980. The Symposium, chaired by Prof. Paul H. Mattingly of New York University, was also entitled “Institutionalization and Education in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.”]

Prof. Mattingly:

Welcome to this Symposium, “Institutionalization and Education in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” This afternoon we hope to initiate several lines of inquiry which will be productive in the historical study of institutionalization and education. Both of these notions have become increasingly important in all disciplines of American scholarship, and in a sense in proportion to this heightened significance their meaning becomes progressively confused. It would not be totally out of place to make that ratio one of the maxims for studying both institutions and education today.



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1 Veblen, Thorstein, The Higher Learning in America (New York, 1957 [1st ed. 1918]), p. 25.

2 Gouldner, Cf Alvin, The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology (New York, 1970), esp. Chapter 9.

3 Higham, John and Conkin, Paul (eds.) New Directions in American Intellectual History (Baltimore, 1979), pp. 181195.

4 Haskell, Thomas, “Power to the Experts,” New York Review of Books v. 24, no. 16 (October 13, 1977): 2834.

5 For more on the theoretical and historiographical issues implied here, see Bender, Thomas, Community and Social Change in America (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1978) pp. 4561.

6 James, Henry, Hawthorne (New York, 1967), pp. 5556.

7 Foucault, Michel, The Archaeology of Knowledge trans by Sheridan Smith, A. H. (New York, 1972).

8 Kendall, Elizabeth, Where She Danced (New York, 1979).

9 Cochran, Thomas, “The Role of the Entrepreneaur in Capital Formation,” Capital Formation and Economic Growth (New York, 1955).

10 Parsons, Talcott, Essays in Sociological Theory (New York, 1949).

11 Kuhn, Thomas, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, 1962).

12 Elkins, Stanley, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (New York, 1963 [1st ed. 1959]).

13 Frederickson, George, The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York, 1965).

14 Higham, John, Writing American History: Essays on Modern Scholarship (Bloomington, Indiana, 1972 [1st ed 1969]).

15 Veysey, Laurence, “Toward a New Direction in Educational History,” History of Education Quarterly, v. 9, no. 3 (Fall 1969): 343–59.

16 Bender, Thomas, “The Cultures of Intellectual Life” in Higham, and Conkin, , New Directions, pp. 181–95 and “Science and the Culture of American Communities,” History of Education Quarterly, v. 16, no. 1 (Spring 1976): 63–77.

17 Haskell's, Thomas work, The Emergence of Professional Social Science (1977), published after I began my inquiry, is a significant exception.

18 This literature has grown to enormous proportions, but the following books are important benchmarks: Gutman, Herbert, Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing Society (New York, 1976); Gutman, Herbert, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (New York, 1976); Genovese, Eugene, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1976).

19 Foucault, Michel, The History of Sexuality Vol. I, trans by Hurley, Robert (New York, 1978), pp. 9293.

20 Allmendinger, David F., Paupers and Scholars: The Transformation of Student Life in Nineteenth-Century New England (New York, 1975).

21 Cunningham, Charles E., Timothy Dwight (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1942).

22 Dwight, Timothy, “Greenfield Hill,” in Parrington, Vernon L. (ed.) The Connecticut Wits (New York, 1926).

23 Calhoun, Daniel, “The City as Teacher: Historical Problems,” The History of Education Quarterly, v. 9, no. 3 (Fall, 1969): 312–25.

24 Schorske, Carl E., Fin-De-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York, 1980).

25 Eliot, Charles W., quoted in Hawkins, Hugh, Between Harvard and America: The Educational Leadership of Charles W. Eliot (New York, 1972), p. 201.

26 Veysey, Laurence, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago, 1965), p. ix.


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