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Gateways to the West, Part I: Education in the Shaping of the West

  • Nancy Beadie (a1), Joy Williamson-Lott (a1), Michael Bowman (a2), Teresa Frizell, Gonzalo Guzman (a1), Jisoo Hyun (a1), Joanna Johnson (a1), Kathryn Nicholas (a1), Lani Phillips (a1), Rebecca Wellington and La'akea Yoshida...


In 1950, the Denver Catholic Register published an article describing and challenging the varieties of “prejudice” that a military pilot moving from base to base in the United States might encounter. To “successfully transact business” in the vicinity of various “metropolitan landing fields,” the writer admonished, the veteran must:

Remember to be not too sanguine about people of Oriental ethnic origin when talking with a merchant in Seattle, that he must speak about the Jew with a slight sneer in Eastern cities, that the Colored person must be “kept in his place” in Houston, that in reservation country the Indian must be treated as a man would treat a child and that in the San Antonio-Los Angeles-Denver triangle it is wiser to remember that the Mexican-American is a second-class citizen.

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1 Miller, Ed, “World Outlook Kills Prejudice,” Denver Catholic Register, 5 October 1950, 2.

2 For an excellent synthesis and critique of central claims of the “new western history,” see Wunder, John, “What's Old about the New Western History, Part 1: Race and Gender,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 85, no. 2 (April 1994): 5058; and Wunder, John, “What's Old about the New Western History, Part 2: Environment and Economy,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 89, no. 2 (Spring 1998): 84–96. Claims about the centrality of “conquest,” the strong role of the federal government, the colonialist exploitation of resources, and distinctive racial construction in the U.S. West are most closely associated with the following scholarship, respectively: Limerick, Patricia Nelson, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987); White, Richard, “It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991); Robbins, William G., Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994); and West, Elliott, “Race and Reconstruction,” Western Historical Quarterly 34, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 6–26.

3 Tamura, Eileen, Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: The Nisei Generation in Hawaii (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Sánchez, George J., Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Adams, David Wallace, Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995); Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, They Called It Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994); MacDonald, Victoria-María, Latino Education in the United States: A Narrated History, 1513–2000 (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004); Kaufman, Polly Welts, Women Teachers on the Frontier (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984); Weiler, Kathleen, Country Schoolwomen: Teaching in Rural California, 1850–1950 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998); Pak, Yoon, Wherever I Go, I Will Always Be a Loyal American: S chooling Seattle's Japanese Americans during World War II (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2002); Gallegos, Bernardo P., Literacy, Education, and Society in New Mexico, 1693–1821 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992); Getz, Lynn, Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850–1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997); Gonzalez, Gilbert, Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation (Denton: University of North Texas Press, [1990] 2013); Donato, Rubén, The Other Struggle for Equal Schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights Era (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997); Miguel, Guadalupe San, Brown Not White: School Integration and the Chicano Movement in Houston (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001); Blanton, Carlos Kevin, The Strange Career of Bilingual Education in Texas, 1836–1981 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004); Raftery, Judy Rosenberg, Land of Fair Promise: Politics and Reform in Los Angeles Schools, 1885–1941 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992); and Wollenberg, Charles M., All Deliberate Speed: Segregation and Exclusion in California Schools, 1855–1975 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976).

4 MacDonald, Victoria-María, “Hispanic, Latino, Chicano, or ‘Other’?: Deconstructing the Relationship between Historians and Hispanic-American Educational History,” History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 365413.

5 Anderson, James, “Race-Conscious Education Policies versus a ‘Color-Blind Constitution’: A Historical Perspective,” Educational Researcher 36, no. 5 (July 2007): 249–57; Urban, Wayne, More than Science and Sputnik: The National Defense Education Act of 1958 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2010).

6 Aron, Stephen, “The Next Western History,” Western Historical Quarterly 33, no. 3 (October 2002): 337–41; Montoya, Maria, “Onward to the Next Western History,” Western Historical Quarterly 43, no. 3 (October 2012): 271–73; and Ngai, Mae, “Western History and the Pacific World,” Western Historical Quarterly 43 (October 2012): 282–88.

7 Lassiter, Matthew and Crespino, Joseph, eds., The Myth of Southern Exceptionalism(New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

8 Lang, Clarence, “Locating the Civil Rights Movement: An Essay on the Deep South, Midwest, and Border South in Black Freedom Studies,” Journal of Social History 47, no. 2 (Winter 2013): 371400.

9 Brilliant, Mark, The Color of America Has Changed: How Racial Diversity Shaped Civil Rights Reform in California, 1941–1978 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

10 Tamura, , Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity, 141; Sánchez, , Becoming Mexican American, 3–86.

11 Donato, Rubén, Mexicans and Hispanos in Colorado Schools and Communities, 1920–1960 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007); and Deutsch, Sarah, No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on an Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

12 Garcia, David G. and Yosso, Tara J., “‘Strictly in the Capacity of Servant’: The Interconnection between Residential and School Segregation in Oxnard, California, 1934–1954,” History of Education Quarterly 53, no. 1 (February 2013): 6489.

13 Chang, Kornel, Pacific Connections: The Making of the US-Canadian Borderlands (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Pak, , Wherever I Go; and Lee, Shelley Sang-Hee, Claiming the Oriental Gateway: Prewar Seattle and Japanese America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011).

14 Chang, , Pacific Connections.

15 Ibid., 4.

16 See, for example, Sabin, Paul, “Home and Abroad: The Two ‘Wests’ of Twentieth-Century United States History,” Pacific Historical Review 66, no. 3 (August 1997): 305–35, 311.

17 Kramer, Paul A., “Power and Connection: Imperial Histories of the United States in the World,” American Historical Review 116, no. 5 (December 2011): 1348–91, 1381, 1384.

18 Angulo, A. J., Empire and Education: A History of Greed and Goodwill from the War of 1898 to the War on Terror (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2012); Coloma, Roland Sintos, ed., Filipinos in Canada: Disturbing Invisibility (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012); Coloma, Roland Sintos, Postcolonial Challenges in Education (New York: Peter Lang, 2009); Wollons, Roberta Lyn, Kindergartens and Culture: The Global Diffusion of an Idea (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000); Zimmerman, Jonathan, Innocents Abroad: American Teachers in the American Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006); Kramer, Paul A., “Is the World Our Campus? International Students and US Global Power in the Long Twentieth Century,” Diplomatic History 33, no. 5 (November 2009): 775–806; Garlitz, Richard and Jarvinen, Lisa, eds., Teaching America to the World and the World to America: Education and Foreign Relations since 1870 (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2012); and Hsu, Madeline Yuan-Yin, Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration between the United States and South China, 1882–1943 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000).

19 See Hsu, Madeline Y., The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015); and Wong, Ting-Hong, “College Admission, International Competition, and the Cold War in Asia: The Case of Overseas Chinese Students in Taiwan in the 1950s,” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 2 (May 2016): 331–57.

20 Tyack, David B., The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974); Kaestle, Carl, Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society, 1780–1860 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983); Tyack, David B. and Hansot, Elisabeth, Managers of Virtue: Public School Leadership in America, 1820–1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1982); and Tyack, David, Seeking Common Ground: Public Schools in a Diverse Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003).

21 See Beadie, Nancy, “The History of National Education Systems in North America,” in The Oxford Handbook on the History of Education, ed. Rury, John and Tamura, Eileen (New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming, 2017).

22 Steffes, Tracy L., School, Society, and State: A New Education to Govern Modern America, 1890–1940 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); Provasnik, Stephen, “Judicial Activism and the Origins of Parental Choice: The Court's Role in the Institutionalization of Compulsory Education in the United States, 1891–1925,” History of Education Quarterly 46, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 311–47; Hutt, Ethan, “Formalism over Function: Compulsion, Courts and the Rise of Educational Formalism, 1870–1930,” Teachers College Record 114, no. 1 (January 2012); and Hutt, Ethan, “Certain Standards: How Efforts to Establish and Enforce Education Standards Transformed American Education, 1870–1980” (PhD dissertation, Stanford University, 2013).

23 MacDonald, Victoria-María, Latino Education in the United States.

24 Gallegos, , Literacy, Education, and Society in New Mexico; Getz, , Schools of Their Own; Blanton, , The Strange Career ; Wollenberg, , All Deliberate Speed.

25 Adams, , Education for Extinction; Tyack, David, James, Thomas, and Benavot, Aaron, Law and the Shaping of Public Education, 1785–1954 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987).

26 Tyack, James, and Benavot, , Law and the Shaping of Public Education, 2042.

27 Adams, , Education for Extinction, 527.

28 Miller, J. R., Shingwauk's Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996); see also, Woolford, Andrew, This Benevolent Experiment: Indigenous Boarding Schools, Genocide, and Redress in Canada and the United States (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015), reviewed in this issue.

29 Alcorn, Kerry, Border Crossings: US Culture and Education in Saskatchewan, 1905–1937 (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2013).

30 Curti, Merle, The Making of an American Community: A Case Study of Democracy in a Frontier County (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959); Doyle, Don Harrison, The Social Order of a Frontier Community: Jacksonville, Illinois, 1825–1870 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978); Faragher, John Mack, Sugar Creek: Life on the Illinois Prairie (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986); and Gray, Susan E, The Yankee West: Community Life on the Michigan Frontier (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).

31 Vaughn, Mary K., The State, Education, and Social Class in Mexico, 1880–1928 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1982); Rockwell, Elsie, “Schools of the Revolution: Enacting and Contesting State Forms in Tlaxcala, 1910–1930,” in Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico , ed. Joseph, Gilbert M. and Nugent, Daniel (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), 170–208; Lewis, Stephen E., The Ambivalent Revolution: Forging State and Nation in Chiapas, 1910–1945 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005); Marak, Andrae M., From Many, One: Indians, Peasants, Borders, and Education in Callista, Mexico, 1924–1935 (Calgary, Canada: University of Calgary Press, 2009).

32 Flores, Ruben, Backroads Pragmatists: Mexico's Melting Pot and Civil Rights in the United States (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014).

33 McLeod, Julie and Paisley, Fiona, “The Modernization of Colonialism and the Educability of the ‘Native’: Transpacific Knowledge Networks and Education in the Interwar Years,” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 3 (August 2016).

34 Manekin, Sarah, “Spreading the Empire of Free Education, 1865–1905” (PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009).

35 See Beadie, Nancy, “War, Education, and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848–1912,” Paedagogica Historica 52, no. 1–2 (February 2016): 5875.

36 Stratton, Clif, Education for Empire: American Schools, Race, and the Paths to Good Citizenship (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016).

37 Bottoms, D. Michael, An Aristocracy of Color: Race and Reconstruction in California and the West, 1850–1890 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013).

38 Kelly, Matthew Gardner, “Schoolmaster's Empire: Race, Conquest, and the Centralization of Common Schooling in California, 1848–1879,” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 3 (August 2016).

39 Noel, Linda C., Debating Identity: Southwestern Statehood and Mexican Immigration (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2014); see also Howard Roberts Lamar's earlier, but also excellent, The Far Southwest, 1846–1912: A Territorial History (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000).

40 Kaomea, Julie, “Education for Elimination in Nineteenth-Century Hawai'i: Settler Colonialism and the Native Hawaiian Chiefs' Children's Boarding School,” History of Education Quarterly 54, no. 2 (May 2014): 123–44; Tamura, Eileen, Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity ; Morgan, Michelle, “Americanizing the Teachers: Identity, Citizenship, and the Teaching Corps in Hawai'i, 1940–1941,” Western Historical Quarterly 45, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 147–67; Asato, Noriko, Teaching Mikadoism: The Attack on Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii, California, and Washington, 1919–1927 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006).

41 Michele Morgan presented some fascinating work on the significance of public schools and educators as political agents in Hawai'i during the statehood period of the 1940s and 1950s at the Annual Meeting of the Western Historical Association. Morgan, Michelle M. K., “Schooling for Statehood: Oren E. Long and Public Education in Hawai'i,” paper presented at Western Historical Association Annual Meeting, Newport Beach, CA, October 2014.

42 Osorio, Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo'ole, Dismembering Lahui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887 (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002).

43 See Frasier, Clayton B., Humstone, Mary M., and Massey, Rheba, Places of Learning: Historical Context of Schools in Wyoming (Cheyenne: Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office, 2010), 173–86; Sandoval, T. Joe, “A Study of Some Aspects of the Spanish-Speaking Population in Selected Communities in Wyoming” (Master's thesis, University of Wyoming, 1946), 46–47.

44 Wickett, Murray R., Contested Territory: Whites, Native Americans, and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1865–1907 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000); Mihesuah, Devon A., Cultivating the Rosebuds: The Education of Women at the Cherokee Female Seminary, 1851–1909 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993); Lomawaima, , They Called It Prairie Light ; Steineker, Rowan Faye, “‘Fully Equal to That of Any Children’: Experimental Creek Education in the Antebellum Era,” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 2 (May 2016): 273–300. See also Chang, David A., The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832–1929 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010); Burton, Jeffrey, Indian Territory and the United States, 1866–1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma Statehood (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995); and Lynn-Sherow, Bonnie, Red Earth: Race and Agriculture in Oklahoma Territory (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004).

45 Adams, , Education for Extinction; Miller, , Shingwauk's Vision ; Lomawaima, , They Called It Prairie Light; Child, Brenda J., Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900–1940 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998); and Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa, Education beyond the Mesas: Hopi Students at Sherman Institute, 1902–1929 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010).

46 Andrews, Thomas G., “Turning the Tables on Assimilation: Oglala Lakotas and the Pine Ridge Day Schools, 1889–1920s,” Western Historical Quarterly 33, no. 4 (Winter 2002): 407–30; Lawrence, Adrea, Lessons from an Indian Day School: Negotiating Colonization in Northern New Mexico, 1902–1907 (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2006).

47 Gram, John R., Education at the Edge of Empire: Negotiating Pueblo Identity in New Mexico's Indian Boarding Schools (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015); Reddick, SuAnn M., “The Evolution of Chemawa Indian School: From Red River to Salem, 1825–1885,” Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, no. 4 (2000): 444–65; Collins, Cary C., “The Broken Crucible of Assimilation: Forest Grove Indian School and the Origins of Off-Reservation Boarding School Education in the West,” Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, no. 4 (2000): 466–507; Marker, Michael, “Borders and the Borderless Coast Salish: Decolonising Historiographies of Indigenous Schooling,” History of Education 44, no. 4 (March 2015): 480–502. See also, Furtwangler, Albert, Bringing Indians to the Book (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005); Woolworth, Stephen, “‘The School Is Under My Direction’: The Politics of Education at Ft. Vancouver, 1836–1838,” Oregon Historical Quarterly 104, no. 2 (July 2003): 228–51; and Harmon, Alexandra, Indians in the Making: Ethnic Relations and Indian Identities around Puget Sound (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

48 See Lomawaima, K. Tsianina and McCarty, Teresa, To Remain an Indian: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006). For discussion of the broader body of historical scholarship on law, sovereignty, and Indian policy, see Kramer, Paul A., “Power and Connection: Imperial Histories of the United States in the World,” American Historical Review 116, no. 5 (December 2011): 1366–68.

49 Raptis, Helen, “Exploring the Factors Prompting British Columbia's First Integration Initiative: The Case of Port Essington Indian Day School,” History of Education Quarterly 51, no. 4 (November 2011): 519–43; Raptis, Helen, “Blurring the Boundaries of Policy and Legislation in the Schooling of Indigenous Children in British Columbia, 1901–1951,” Historical Studies in Education 27, no. 2 (Fall 2015): 65–77; and Raptis, Helen and the Nation, Tsimshian, What We Learned: Two Generations Reflect on Tsimshian Education and the Day Schools (Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2016).

50 Rury, John, Education and Women's Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870–1930 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991); and Radke-Moss, Andrea G., Bright Epoch: Women and Coeducation in the American West (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008).

51 Weiler, , Country Schoolwomen; Raftery, , Land of Fair Promise; Weiler, Kathleen, Democracy and Schooling in California: The Legacy of Helen Heffernan and Corinne Seeds (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011).

52 Herbst, Jurgen, Women Pioneers of Public Education: How Culture Came to the Wild West (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008); Morgan, Michelle, “‘A Model of Womanhood or Manhood’: City Teachers in the Far West, 1890–1930” (PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2007); Morgan, Michelle M. K., “A Field of Great Promise: Teacher Migration to the Urban Far West, 1890–1930,” History of Education Quarterly 54, no. 1 (February 2014): 70–97; and Pisapia, Michael Callaghan, “The Authority of Women in the Political Development of American Public Education, 1860–1930,” Studies in American Political Development 24 (April 2010): 24–56.

53 Kaufman, , Women Teachers on the Frontier; Weiler, , Country School Women; Fuller, Wayne, “Country Schoolteaching on the Sod-House Frontier,” Arizona and the West 17, no. 2 (Summer 1975): 121–40; Blair, Karen J., “Normal Schools of the Pacific Northwest,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 101, no. 1 (Winter 2009/2010): 3–16.

54 Morgan, Michelle, “Americanizing the Teachers.”

55 Muñoz, Laura, “Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930” (PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, 2006).

56 Mihesuah, , Cultivating the Rosebuds ; and Trennert, Robert A., “Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878–1920,” Western Historical Quarterly 13, no. 3 (1982): 271–90.

57 Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, “Estelle Reel, Superintendent of Indian Schools, 1898–1910: Politics, Curriculum, and Land,” Journal of American Indian Education 35, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 531.

58 The phrase “intimacies of empire” comes from the anthropologist Ann Laura Stoler. See Stoler, Ann Laura, “Tense and Tender Ties: The Politics of Comparison in North American History and (Post) Colonial Studies,” Journal of American History 88, no. 3 (December 2001): 829–65; and Stoler, Ann Laura, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

59 Lawrence, , Lessons from an Indian Day School.

60 Jacobs, Margaret D., White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880–1940 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009).

61 Gordon, Linda, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).

62 Shah, Nayan, Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

63 Deutsch, , No Separate Refuge; Ruiz, Vicki, “Dead Ends or Goldmines? Using Missionary Records in Mexican American Women's History,” in Unequal Sisters, A Multicultural Reader in US Women's History, ed. DuBois, Ellen Carol and Ruiz, Vicki (New York: Routledge, 1994), 298315.

64 Gonzalez, , Chicano Education, especially chapter 2, “The Americanization of the Mexican Family,” 4566.

65 See Andres, Benny J. Jr. “‘I Am Almost More at Home with Brown Faces than with White’: An Americanization Teacher in Imperial Valley, California, 1923–1924,” Southern California Quarterly 93, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 69107; also, Raftery, , Land of Fair Promise ; and Weiler, , Democracy and Schooling in California.

66 Gullett, Gayle, “Women Progressives and the Politics of Americanization in California, 1915–1920,” Pacific Historical Review 64, no. 1 (February 1995): 7194.

67 Burkholder, Zoë, Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900–1954 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011); Gordon, Leah, From Power to Prejudice: The Rise of Racial Individualism in Midcentury America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015); and Selig, Diana, Americans All: The Cultural Gifts Movement (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

At the time the essay was drafted, he and the remaining authors were graduate students in the history of education at the University of Washington. The authors are grateful for feedback on an earlier version of this essay from the scholars who participated in our session on this topic at the Annual Meeting of the History of Education Society in St. Louis, November 4–8, 2015: David Wallace Adams, Carlos Blanton, Ruben Flores, David Garcia, Matthew Kelly, Adrea Lawrence, and Laura Muñoz.

Gateways to the West, Part I: Education in the Shaping of the West

  • Nancy Beadie (a1), Joy Williamson-Lott (a1), Michael Bowman (a2), Teresa Frizell, Gonzalo Guzman (a1), Jisoo Hyun (a1), Joanna Johnson (a1), Kathryn Nicholas (a1), Lani Phillips (a1), Rebecca Wellington and La'akea Yoshida...


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