Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

African Voices Echoing in European Texts: The Muffled Meanings of the Madzimbabwe of the Mocaranga between the Sixteenth and the Nineteenth Centuries

  • Gai Roufe and Joseph C. Miller

Abstract

The present article contributes to understanding of the Zimbabwe political institution of the southern portion of the Zambesi Valley based on the conceptualization of its population, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. We reconstruct the local perceptions of this institution by detecting information provided by local persons as recounted in Portuguese ethnographic documents. The original information underwent different types and degrees of translation and editing to reach the forms recorded in these documents. We present a critical process of recovering local voices, ideologies, and conceptualizations from written literal translations of excerpts of oral statements that can serve as a valuable methodological tool in expanding our understanding of the history of early African politics.

Résumé

Le présent article aide à comprendre l’institution politique zimbabwéenne de la partie sud de la vallée du Zambèze au prisme de sa propre population entre le XVIe et le XIXe siècle. Nous reconstruisons les perceptions locales de cette institution en analysant les informations fournies par les populations locales telles que racontées dans les documents ethnographiques portugais. Les informations originales ont subi différents types et degrés de traduction et d’édition pour atteindre les formes actuelles de ces documents. Nous présentons un processus critique de récupération des voix, idéologies et conceptualisations locales à partir de traductions littérales écrites d’extraits de déclarations orales qui peuvent servir d’outil méthodologique précieux pour améliorer notre compréhension de l’histoire africaine ancienne.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abraham, Donald P., “The Roles of Chaminuka and the Mhondoro Cults in Shona Political History,” in: Erik Stokes and Richard Brown (eds.), The Zambesian Past (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1966), 2846.
Allina, Eric, “The Zimba, the Portuguese, and Other Cannibals in Late Sixteenth-Century Southeast Africa,” Journal of Southern African Studies 37–2 (2011), 211227.
Barreto, Manuel, ‘Informação Informação do estado e conquista dos Rios de Cuama vulgar e verdadeiramente chamados rios do ouro,” Records of South Eastern Africa VI (1900), 436508.
Barros, João de, “Da Asia: dos Feitos que os Portuguezes Fizeram na Conquista e Descubrimento das Terras e Mares do Oriente,” Records of South Eastern Africa VI (1900), 113.
Beach, David N., The Shona & Zimbabwe, 900–1850: An Outline of Shona History (London: Heinemann, 1980).
Beach, David N., “Documents and African Society on the Zimbabwean Plateau Before 1890,” Paideuma 33 (1987), 129145.
Bocarro, Antonio, “Decada XIII,” Records of South Eastern Africa III (1899), 266268.
Botelho, Sebastião X., Memoria Estatistica Sobre Os Dominios Portuguezes Na Africa Oriental (Lisboa: Morando, 1835).
Caetano Xavier, Ignacio, “Notícias dos Dominios Portuguezes na costa de Africa Oriental,” in: António Alberto Banha de Andrade (ed.), Relações de Moçambique Setecentista (Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1955).
Chouin, Gérard, “Seen, Said, or Deduced?: Travel Accounts, Historical Criticism, and Discourse Theory: Towards an ‘Archeology’ of Dialogue in Seventeenth-Century Guinea,” History in Africa 28 (2001), 5370.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L., Of Revelation and Revolution: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa : Vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
Courtois, Victor J., Diccionario Cafre – Tetense – Portuguez: Ou Idioma Fallado No Districto de Tete e Na Vasta Região Do Zambese Inferior (Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1900).
Couto, Diogo do, “Da Asia: dos Feitos que os Portuguezes Fizeram na Conquista e Descubrimento das Terras e Mares do Oriente,” Records of South Eastern Africa VI (1900), 337338.
Dulley, Iracema, Deus é Feiticeiro - Prática e Disputa nas Missões Católicas em Angola Colonial (São Paulo: Annablume, 2010).
Elliott, William A., Dictionary of the Tebele & Shuna Languages: With Illustrative Sentences and Some Grammatical Notes (London: D. Nutt, 1897).
Ferão, (Senhor), “Account of the Portuguese Possessions within the Captaincy of Rios de Sena,” Records of South Eastern Africa VII (1901), 381.
Gamitto, see: Pedroso Gamitto.
Garlake, Peter S., “Prehistory and Ideology in Zimbabwe,” Africa 52 (1982), 119.
Gelfand, Michael, Shona Religion (Cape Town: Juta, 1962).
Gomes, Antonio, “Viagem que fez o Padre Ant. Gomes, da Comp. de Jesus, ao Imperio de de (sic) Manomotapa; e assistencia que fez nas ditas terras d. Alg’us annos,” Studia 3 (1959), 155242.
Huffman, Thomas N., “The Rise and Fall of Zimbabwe,” Journal of African History 13–3 (1972), 353366.
Huffman, Thomas N., Snakes & Crocodiles: Power and Symbolism in Ancient Zimbabwe (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1996),
Huffman, Thomas N., and McEdward, Murimbuka, “Shona Ethnography and Iron Age Burials,” Journal of African Archaeology 1 (2003), 237246.
Isaacman, Allen, “Madzi-manga, Mhondoro and the Use of Oral Traditions - A Chapter in Barue Religious and Political History,” Journal of African History 14–3 (1973), 395409.
Jeater, Diana, Law, Language, and Science: The Invention of the“Native Mind” in Southern Rhodesia, 1890–1930 (Portsmouth NH: Heinemann, 2007).
Jones, Adam, and Heintze, Beatrix, “Introduction,” Paideuma 33 (1987), 117.
Lan, David, “Resistance to the Present by the Past: Mediums and Money in Zimbabwe,” in: Parry, Jonathan and Bloch, Maurice (eds.), Money and the Morality of Exchange (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 191208.
Macamo, Solange, Privileged Places in South Central Mozambique Studies in Global Archaeology: The Archaeology of Manyikeni, Niamara, Songo and Degue-Mufa (Maputo: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Eduardo Mondlane, 2006).
MacGaffey, Wyatt, “Dialogues of the Deaf: Europeans on the Atlantic Coast of Africa,” in: Schwartz, Stuart B. (ed.), Implicit Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflecting on the Encounters between Europeans and Other Peoples in the Early Modern Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 249267.
MacGonagle, Elizabeth, Crafting Identity in Zimbabwe and Mozambique (Rochester NY: University of Rochester Press, 2013).
Mello e Castro, Dionízio de, “Noticia do Imperio Marave e dos Rios de Sеnа,” Anais da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar 9–1 (1954), 119149.
Memoria e Documentos Ácerca Dos Direitos de Portugal Aos Territorios de Machona e Nyassa: 1890 (Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, 1890).
Miranda, Antonio P., “Memória sobre a costa de Africa,” in: António Alberto Banha de Andrade (ed.), Relações de Moçambique setecentista (Lisboa: Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de Publicações e Biblioteca, 1955), 309.
Monclaro, Fransisco de, “Relaçaõ da viagem que fizeraõ os pes da companhia de Jesus com Franco Barretto na conquista de Monomotapa no anno de 1569,” Records of South Eastern Africa III (1899), 157253.
Mudenge, Stan I.G., A Political History of Munhumutapa: c.1400–1902 (Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1988).
Pachero, Albino M., “Uma Viagem De Tete Ao Zumbo: Diário De Albino Manoel Pacheco,” in: Boletim official do Governo Geral da Provincia de Moçambique (Lourenço Marques: Imprensa Nacional, 1883).
Pedroso Gamitto, Antonio C. , “Successão e Acclamação dos Reis do Barue,” Archivo Pittoresco 1 (I857), 2829.
Peters, Carl, The Eldorado of the Ancients (London: G. Bell, 1902).
Pikirayi, Innocent, The Zimbabwe Culture: Origins and Decline of Southern Zambezian States (Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2001), 181195.
Posselt, Friedrich W.T., Facts and Fiction: A Short Account of the Natives of Southern Rhodesia (Bulawayo: Rhodesian Print. & Pub. Co., 1935).
Randles, William G.L., L’empire du Monomotapa du XVe au XIXe siècle (Paris: Mouton, 1975).
Reis e Gama, Carlos, “Resposta das questoens sobre os cafres,” Estudos de Antropologia Cultural 2 (1966), 138.
Rodrigues, , Eugénia Portugueses e Africanos Nos Rios de Sena: Os Prazos da Coroa em Moçambique Nos Séculos Xvii e Xviii (Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 2014).
Roufe, Gai, “The Reasons for a Murder: Local Cultural Conceptualizations of the Martyrdom of Gonçalo da Silveira in 1561,” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 169 (2015), 467487.
Roufe, Gai, “Local Perceptions of the Political Systems of the Southern Bank of the Zambesi Valley in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Century,” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 49–1 (2016), 5375.
Roufe, Gai, “Soapstone Birds in Soapstone Nests: Ethnohistorical Interpretation of the Zimbabwe Birds Based on Sixteenth to Nineteenth Century Portuguese Documents,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 51–2 (2016), 178196.
Sahlins, Marshal, “The Return of the Event, Again; With Reflections on the Beginnings of the Great Fijian War of 1843 to 1855 between the Kingdoms of Bau and Rewa,” in: Biersack, Aletta (ed.), Clio in Oceania: Toward a Historical Anthropology (Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 37100.
Schebesta, Paul, “Eine Bantugrammatik Aus Dem 17. Jahrhundert. Arte Da Lingua De Cafre,” Anthropos 14/15 (4/6) (1919), 764787.
Shoko, Tavona, “From Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust: Cremation and the Shona Concept of Death and Burial in Zimbabwe,” Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 36–1 (2008), 435456.
Silva, João J. da, “Memoria sobre Sofalla,” in: Feliciani, José Fialho and Nicolau, Victor Hugo (eds.), Memórias de Sofala: Etnografia e História das Identidades e da Violência entre os diferentes Poderes no Centro de Moçambique Séculos XIIIe XIX (Lisboa: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 1998), 27135.
Santos, João dos, Ethiopia Oriental e Varia Historia de Couzas notaveis do Oriente (Evora: Manoel de Lyra, 1609).
Sousa, Fransisco, Oriente Conquistado a Jesu Christo Pelos Padres da Companhia de Jesus da Provincia De Goa (Lisboa: Officina de Valentin Costa Deslandes, 1710).
Thornton, John, “Cannibals, Witches, and Slave Traders in the Atlantic World,” The William and Mary Quarterly 60–2 (2003), 273294.
Thornton, John, “Afro-Christian Syncretism in the Kingdom of Kongo,” Journal of African History 54–1 (2013), 5377.

African Voices Echoing in European Texts: The Muffled Meanings of the Madzimbabwe of the Mocaranga between the Sixteenth and the Nineteenth Centuries

  • Gai Roufe and Joseph C. Miller

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.