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QUESTIONING THE RHETORIC OF BRITISH BORSTAL REFORM IN THE 1930s

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 October 2019

MELANIE TEBBUTT
Affiliation:
Manchester Metropolitan University
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Abstract

In 1938, the Reverend Digby Bliss Kittermaster, who became chaplain at Rochester Borstal after retiring as a housemaster at Harrow public school, started a diary in which he recorded everyday interactions with inmates and staff. The reputation of the borstal system was at its height in the 1930s owing to Alexander Paterson's reforms, based on the structures and character-building ethos of British public schools. Young people's voices were rarely heard in this progressive discourse of borstal reform and Kittermaster is unusual for articulating them, recording what he heard, teasing out the contradictions of Paterson's reforming aspirations and the reality of humiliation and intimidation that borstal boys often experienced. Kittermaster's public school background made him well placed to question the rhetoric of the public school reform model. His complex personal perspective suggests how humane emphasis on individual potential was subverted at Rochester by coercive structures of traditional prison improvement. Kittermaster's growing frustration at his own powerlessness supports a more nuanced interpretation of how the borstal system has usually been depicted in the Paterson era of reform, especially in relation to damaging mental and emotional costs to inmates and staff, which have been largely neglected in the scholarship of borstal in the 1930s.

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Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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Footnotes

I would like to thank Heather Shore and the anonymous peer reviewers for their helpful comments on this work. I should also thank the Trustees of the Mass Observation Archive, University of Sussex, for permissions to quote from archival material.

References

1 Rev. D. B. Kittermaster, ‘A borstal diary’, University of Sussex, Mass Observation Archive (MOA), topic collection (TC) ‘Juvenile delinquency 1946–7’, 11/1/A. The diary is dated in the archive as 13 Feb. 1945–14 Aug. 1946, probably owing to being filed with correspondence and research material for a Mass Observation book, Report on juvenile delinquency, published in 1949. The dates should be 13 Feb. 1938–15 Aug. 1939.

For work on young offenders which uses chaplains’ reports and diaries, see Rogers, Helen, ‘Kindness and reciprocity: liberated prisoners and Christian charity in early nineteenth-century England’, Journal of Social History, 47 (2014), pp. 721–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Houlbrook, Matt, ‘Fashioning an ex-crook self: citizenship and criminality in the work of Netley Lucas’, Twentieth Century British History, 24 (2013), pp. 1030, at p. 3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Young people in borstal were described as ‘inmates’ or ‘offenders’ rather than prisoners. They served a ‘period of detention’ rather than a sentence. See Reidy, Conor, ‘Institutional power and the Irish borstal boy, 1906–21’, Irish Historical Studies, 38 (2012), pp. 3651, at p. 36CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 Jewkes, Yvonne, Crewe, Ben, and Bennett, Jamie, eds., Handbook on prisons (London, 2007), p. 44Google Scholar. In 1938, ‘around 60 per cent’ of discharged male offenders had not been reconvicted after a three-year follow-up: Cross, R., Punishment, prison and the public (London, 1971), p. 132Google Scholar; Rutherford, A., Growing out of crime: the new era (Winchester, 2002), p. 56Google Scholar; Jane Fryer, ‘Brutal exercise, hard work and strict education – topped off with a bit of musical theatre: the days borstals knocked yobs into shape’, 28 Mar. 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2121843/Brutal-exercise-hard-work-strict-education--topped-bit-musical-theatre-The-days-Borstals-knocked-yobs-shape.html.

3 Moseley, S., The truth about borstal (London, 1926), p. 165Google Scholar; Houlbrook, ‘Fashioning an ex-crook self’, p. 6, citing Rogers, H., ‘The way to Jerusalem: reading, writing and reform in an early Victorian gaol’, Past & Present, 205 (2009), pp. 71104CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Menis, Susanna, ‘More insights on the English borstal: “shaping” or just “shaking” the young offender?’, International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 5 (2012), pp. 985–98, at p. 996Google Scholar, citing Home Office, Report of the Commissioners of Prisons and Directors of Convict Prisons for the year 1947 (London, 1948), p. 59Google Scholar.

4 Alyson Brown, ‘Class, discipline and philosophy’, Prison Service Journal, Mar. 2011, pp. 3–5, at p. 4; Hugh Fraser, HC Deb. 14 Nov. 1968, vol. 773, col. 643.

5 See, for example, Moore, John M., ‘Prison: more than detention?’, Criminal Justice Matters, 102 (2015), pp. 1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

6 Norval, Morris and Rothman, David J., The Oxford history of the prison: the practice of punishment in Western society (New York, NY, and Oxford, 1995), p. 143Google Scholar.

7 Cited in A. R. Hyland, ‘A prison chaplain's program’, Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the American Prison Association (1939), p. 480. See also Sir Alexander Paterson, ‘The prison chaplain’, Spectator, 17 July 1947, p. 11.

8 D. B. Kittermaster, ‘Campbell College, Portrush, N. Ireland. Report on adolescents in wartime, 7 April 1942’, MOA, file report (FR) 1080, p. 1. In 1948, Kittermaster described submitting monthly directives: Kittermaster to W. D. Willcock, 2 Feb. 1948, MOA, TC ‘Material relating to Report on juvenile delinquency’, 11/2/A.

9 Hinton, James, Nine wartime lives: Mass Observation and the making of the modern self (Oxford, 2010), pp. 3, 6CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10 Ibid., p. 2; D. B. Kittermaster, ‘The treatment of juvenile delinquency: a critical survey’, MOA, TC ‘Juvenile delinquency 1946–7’, 11/2/A, p. 1; Tyerman, Christopher, A history of Harrow School, 1324–1991 (Oxford, 2000), p. 457CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

Ibid

11 See Garland, David, Punishment and welfare: a history of penal strategies (Aldershot, 1985)Google Scholar. For the nineteenth-century aftercare system, see Godfrey, Barry, Cox, Pamela, Shore, Heather, and Alker, Zoe, Young criminal lives: life courses and life chances from 1850 (Oxford, 2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 The age limit could be increased ‘by order’. In 1936, the maximum age was raised to twenty-three. Rutherford, Growing out of crime, pp. 50–1, 53; Menis, ‘More insights’, p. 987.

13 Daily Herald, 27 Dec. 1921, p. 4.

14 Scotsman, 27 Dec. 1921, p. 8; Sheffield Daily Independent, 14 Nov. 1921, p. 5; Cross, Punishment, prison and the public, p. 31. For influences on Paterson's rehabilitative approach, see Tebbutt, Melanie, Being boys: youth, leisure and identity in the interwar years (Manchester, 2012), p. 49CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15 Times, 28 Aug. 1928, p. 13; M. K. Smith, ‘Alexander Paterson, youth work and prison reform’, infed, 2004, rev. 2011, http://infed.org/mobi/alexander-paterson-youth-work-and-prison-reform/; Bailey, Victor, Delinquency and citizenship: reclaiming the young offender, 1914–1948 (Oxford, 1987), p. 196Google Scholar. On Paterson, see Ruck, S. K., ed., Paterson on prisons: the collected papers of Sir Alexander Paterson (London, 1951)Google Scholar; Fox, Lionel W., The English prison and borstal systems: an account of the prison and borstal systems in England and Wales after the Criminal Justice Act 1948, with a historical introduction and an examination of the principles of imprisonment as a legal punishment (London, 1952), p. 358Google Scholar.

16 Menis, ‘More insights’, p. 990.

17 Millei, Zsuzsa, Griffiths, Tom G., and Parkes, Robert John, eds., Re-theorizing discipline in education: problems, politics, and possibilities (New York, NY, and Oxford, 2010), p. 98CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Proceedings of the International Penitentiary Congress, p. 12, H.L. 1910 (5286) xxxix, 6, cited in Reidy, ‘Institutional power’, p. 38; Conrad, John Phillips, Crime and its correction: an international survey of attitudes and practices (Berkeley, CA, 1975), p. 88Google Scholar; Warder, John and Wilson, Reg, ‘The British borstal training system’, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 64 (1973), pp. 118–27, at p. 118CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

18 Alper, Benedict S., ‘Borstal briefly re-visited’, British Journal of Criminology, 8 (1968), pp. 619, at p. 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Jacqueline A. Dunn, ‘Breaking the hegemony of the prison: an analysis of the emergence and development of the detention centre system’ (Ph.D. thesis, Sheffield, 1985), p. 97.

19 Coldrey, B., ‘“The extreme end of a spectrum of violence”: physical abuse, hegemony and resistance in British residential care’, Children and Society, 15 (2001), pp. 95106, at p. 90CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

20 See Home Office Prison Commission, The principles of the borstal system ([London], 1932)Google Scholar; Norval and Rothman, Oxford history of the prison, p. 142; Catrin Smith, ‘Paterson, Sir Alexander Henry (1884–1947)’, ODNB.

21 J. C. W. Methven in Times, 21 June 1928, p. 11. Methven was a borstal governor and an assistant prison commissioner: see Maclean's Magazine, 1 Jan. 1934, p. 13.

22 Coldrey, ‘“The extreme end”’, p. 98; Ignatieff, Michael, A just measure of pain: the penitentiary in the industrial revolution (London, 1978), p. 215CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

23 Venn, J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses; a biographical list of all known students, graduates and holders of office at the University of Cambridge, from the earliest times to 1900, part ii, from 1752 to 1900, iv, Kahlenberg–Oyler (Cambridge, 1951), p. 60Google Scholar.

24 It was also a ‘certified home’ for boys on licence from Reformatory. Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 1.

25 Letter from Kittermaster, D. B., ‘Early days at Shrewsbury House’, Liverpool Salopian, 1, 2 (1930)Google Scholar, http://www.shrewsburyhouse.org.uk/history-2/; ‘Extract from “The Liverpool boys” by Adrian Struve’, n.d., Shrewsbury House Archive Team, Shrewsbury House, 37 Langrove Street, Everton, L5 3PE.

26 Kittermaster, ‘Early days at Shrewsbury House’.

27 Wellington Journal, 8 June 1907, p. 12. The Akbar was managed by the Liverpool Reformatory Association for Church of England boys.

28 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 2.

29 Kittermaster, ‘Early days at Shrewsbury House’; Christopher Tyerman, History of Harrow, p. 457.

30 Saint George, no. 37, vol. x, Jan. 1907; Crockfords clerical directory for 1930 (Oxford, 1930), p. 749Google Scholar; ‘Report of an inquiry by Mr. C. F. G. Masterman, M.P., under secretary of state for the Home Department, into charges made concerning the management of the Heswall Nautical School’, Cd 5541 (London, 1911), p. 2.

31 John Bull, 22 Oct. 1910; Carlebach, Julius, Caring for children in trouble (London, 1970), pp. 83–4Google Scholar. Shore, Heather, ‘Punishment, reformation, or welfare: responses to “the problem” of juvenile crime in Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, in Johnston, Helen, ed., Punishment and control in historical perspective (Basingstoke, 2008)Google Scholar; Coldrey, ‘“The extreme end”’, p. 102.

32 Carlebach, Caring for children, p. 84.

33 Symons, Julian, Horatio Bottomley (London, 2001, orig. edn 1955), p. 90Google Scholar; Carlebach, Caring for children, p. 86.

34 D. B. Kittermaster, ‘The cane and the “cat”’, Spectator, 20 Jan. 1939, p. 11.

35 ‘Report of an inquiry into Heswall Nautical School’, p. 15; HC Deb. 23 Feb. 1911, vol. 21, cols. 2159–2202, at col. 2191.

36 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 4.

37 His wife was the only child of George Latham Bennett. Coventry Herald, 23 and 24 Aug. 1912, p. 2. Bennett may have been Captain Bennett of the Akbar, who was described as ahead of his time in wanting to show the boys more kindness. He resigned his post in 1907: Liverpool Echo, 29 June 1985, p. 10.

38 The friend was Cyril Alington, an ordained minister, who became a housemaster at Eton College in 1904, head of Shrewsbury School in 1908, and head of Eton in 1917: Tim Card, ‘Alington, Cyril Argentine (1872–1955)’, ODNB.

39 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 1.

40 Times, 8 Mar. 1965, p, 15.

41 Heimann, Judith M., The most offending soul alive: Tom Harrisson and his remarkable life (Honolulu, HI, 2002), p. 13Google Scholar; Times, 8 Mar. 1965, p. 15; Hornsey, Matthew J., Majkut, Louise, Terry, Deborah J., and McKimmie, Blake M., ‘On being loud and proud: non-conformity and counter-conformity to group norms’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 42 (2003), pp. 319–35, at p. 333CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

42 Tyerman, History of Harrow School, p. 457.

43 Heimann, Most offending soul, p. 13.

44 Ibid.; Fox, English prison, p. 365.

Ibid

45 See Izzo, David Garrett, W.H. Auden encyclopedia (London, 2004)Google Scholar; Green, Timothy, The adventurers: four profiles of contemporary travellers (London, 1970), p. 104Google Scholar.

46 Harrisson, T., in Willcock, H. D., Report on juvenile delinquency (London, 1949), p. 12Google Scholar.

47 Menis, ‘More insights’, p. 994. There was a girls’ borstal at Aylesbury. The graded system of borstals included four ‘open’, less strictly supervised ones, a typology which also characterized the adult prison system and, ‘less formally’, the earlier industrial school system. Training ships like the Akbar, for the most difficult boys, had the highest rates of recidivism. Heather Shore, email correspondence, Sept. 2018; Roth, Mitchell P., Prisons and prison systems: a global encyclopedia (Westport, CT, 2006), p. 203Google Scholar; New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Council and House of Representatives, 1 September–7 October 1939 (Wellington, 1940), p. 359Google Scholar; Hayner, Norman S., ‘English schools for young offenders’, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 27 (1937), pp. 627778, at pp. 702–3Google Scholar.

48 Hermann Mannheim and Leslie Wilkins, T., Studies in the causes of delinquency and the treatment of offenders, I: prediction methods in relation to borstal training (London, 1955), pp. 28, 31Google Scholar.

49 Ibid., p. 31.

Ibid

50 Hayner, ‘English schools’, p. 702; New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, p. 359.

51 Manheim and Wilkins, Studies, p. 30.

52 Hayner, ‘English schools’, p. 702; New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, p. 359; Fox, English prison, p. 336; Times, 17 Sept. 1951, p. 5.

53 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 1.

54 Ibid.; autobiographies of Borstal inmates, typed ms, 15 Aug. 1938, MOA, TC ‘Juvenile delinquency 1946–7’, 11/1/D.

Ibid

55 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 1; Times, 17 Sept. 1951, p. 5; Jewkes et al., Handbook on prisons, p. 44. The diary in the MOA is a typescript, probably based on handwritten notes which were subsequently prepared for publication. The final page comprises a hand-written list of original names of inmates and staff and pseudonyms. This article uses these pseudonyms.

56 Hood, R., Borstal re-assessed (London, 1965), p. 63Google Scholar; Fox, English prison, p. 365.

57 Mervyn Archdale, ‘Memories of Demesne Farm’ (from a letter written in 1993 to his cousin Ann Perfect Carpenter), http://www.archdale.ie/funeral/Memories%20Of%20Demesne%20Farm.pdf; Times, 8 Mar. 1965, p. 15.

58 Kittermaster to Willcock, 23 May 1947, and Willcock to Kittermaster, 24 May 1947, MOA, TC 11/2/A; Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 1.

59 ‘Note for Convoy books, Juvenile delinquency pamphlet. Introduction by Tom Harrisson’, p. 2, MOA, FR 2474.

60 Ibid., pp. 10–11; Katz, Stephen, Disciplining old age: the formation of gerontological knowledge (Charlottesville, VA, and London, 1996), p. 114Google Scholar.

Ibid

61 Willcock, Report on juvenile delinquency, pp. 11, 15; Chase, Elaine, Simon, Antonia, and Jackson, Sonia, eds., In care and after: a positive perspective (London and New York, NY, 2005), p. 13Google Scholar.

62 Willcock, Report on juvenile delinquency, p. 11.

63 Probation Journal, 1 Nov. 1949, p. 312; British Journal of Sociology, 1 (1950), pp. 180–2, at p. 180CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

64 Probation Journal, 1 Nov. 1949, p. 312.

65 Tebbutt, Being boys, p. 96.

66 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 15 Oct. 1938, p. 43.

67 Ibid.

Ibid

68 Ibid.., 27 July 1938, p. 27.

Ibid

69 Ibid.., 29 May 1938, pp. 22–3; 27 July 1938, p. 28; 10 Oct. 1938, p. 42.

Ibid

70 Ibid.., 23 Feb. 1938, p. 7.

Ibid

71 Ibid.., 29 May 1938, pp. 22–3.

Ibid

72 Ibid.., 16 Dec. 1938, pp. 62–3; Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, p. 5.

Ibid

73 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 24 Mar. 1938, pp. 10–11.

74 Ibid., 18 July 1938, p. 26.

Ibid

75 Coldrey, ‘“The extreme end”’, p. 97.

76 Menis, ‘More insights’, p. 991.

77 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 27 July 1938, pp. 27–8.

78 Ibid., 16 Aug. 1938, pp. 32–3.

Ibid

79 Ibid., 8 Nov. 1938, p. 49.

Ibid

80 Ibid., 16 and 21 Feb. 1938, p. 3.

Ibid

81 Ibid., 21 June 1938, pp. 23–4.

Ibid

82 Ibid., 23 Feb. 1945, p. 9.

Ibid

83 Ibid., 22 May 1938, p. 20.

Ibid

84 Menis, ‘More insights’, pp. 995, 997.

85 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 30 June 1938, p. 25.

86 Ibid., 22 Feb. 1938, p. 5.

Ibid

87 Ibid., 15 Nov. 1938, p. 55.

Ibid

88 Ibid., 22 May 1938, p. 20.

Ibid

89 Kittermaster, ‘Treatment of juvenile delinquency’, notes, p. 6.

90 Mark Benney, ‘Borstal’, report of an address delivered at a Howard League luncheon on 6 October 1937, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 5 (1938), pp. 56–7Google Scholar; Mark Benney, ‘Borstal as it might be’, Spectator, 5 Mar. 1937, p. 10. Benney was the pseudonym of Henry Ernest Degras. His autobiography, Low company, was published in 1938. Lee, Raymond M., ‘“The man who committed a hundred burglaries”: Mark Benney's strange and eventful sociological career’, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 51 (2015), pp. 410–11, at p. 430CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

91 Lee, ‘“The man who committed a hundred burglaries”’, p. 430.

92 Gabriel, Yiannis and Griffiths, Dorothy S., ‘Emotion, learning and organizing’, Learning Organization, 9 (2002), pp. 215–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Matthews, Sean, ‘Change and theory in Raymond Williams's structure of feeling’, Pretexts: Literary and Cultural Studies, 10 (2001), pp. 179–94, at p. 182CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Daley, C., Leisure and pleasure: reshaping and revealing the New Zealand body 1900–1960 (Auckland, 2003), p. 194Google Scholar.

93 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 21 Feb. 1938, p. 4.

94 Ibid., 25 Mar. 1938, p. 11.

Ibid

95 Ibid., 22 Feb. 1938, p. 5.

Ibid

96 Ibid., 23 Feb. 1938, pp. 8–9.

Ibid

97 Ibid., 23 Feb. 1938, p. 9.

Ibid

98 Ibid., 15 Oct. 1938, p. 43.

Ibid

99 From 1933, approved schools, for children under seventeen, replaced reformatories and industrial schools.

100 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 16 Aug. 1938, pp. 32–3.

101 Ibid., 14 Feb. 1938, pp. 1–2.

Ibid

102 Ibid., 4 May 1938, p. 17.

Ibid

103 Ibid., 22 Nov. 1938, p. 57.

Ibid

104 Ibid., 29 Mar. 1938, pp. 12–13.

Ibid

105 Ibid., 29 Mar. 1938, p. 13.

Ibid

106 Ibid., 20 Apr. 1938, p. 15.

Ibid

107 Ibid., 9 Dec. 1938, p. 61.

Ibid

108 Ibid., 4 May 1938, p. 16.

Ibid

109 Ibid., 22 May 1938, p. 20.

Ibid

110 Ibid., 22 May 1938, p. 19.

Ibid

111 Ibid., 4–6 Apr. 1938, pp. 13–14.

Ibid

112 Ibid.

Ibid

113 Linda Mary Parker, ‘Shell-shocked prophets: the influence of former Anglican army chaplains on the Church of England and British society in the inter-war years’ (Ph.D. thesis, Birmingham, 2013), p. 291; Roper, Michael, ‘From the shell-shocked soldier to the nervous child: psychoanalysis in the aftermath of the First World War’, Psychoanalysis and History, 18 (2016), pp. 3969CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

114 Dunn, ‘Breaking the hegemony of the prison’, p. 101.

115 For child psychiatry and the rise of therapeutic approaches, see Stewart, John, ‘“I thought you would want to come and see his home”: child guidance and psychiatric social work in inter-war Britain’, in Jackson, M., ed., Health and the modern home (London, 2007), pp. 111–27Google Scholar; Stewart, John, ‘“The dangerous age of childhood”: child guidance and the “normal” child in Great Britain, 1920–1950’, Paedagogica Historica, 47 (2011), pp. 785803CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stewart, John, Child guidance in Britain, 1918–1955: the dangerous age of childhood (London, 2015)Google Scholar.

116 Dunn, ‘Breaking the hegemony’, p. 105.

117 Willcock to Kittermaster, 24 May 1947, MOA, TC 11/2/A. This was probably Dr W. H. de B. Hubert of St Thomas's Hospital, appointed in the 1930s as the first ‘visiting psychotherapist’ at Wormwood Scrubs. In 1939, Hubert, with Sir William Norbert East, chief medical inspector of prisons, published The psychological treatment of crime, an influential report which recommended various improvements, including psychiatric ‘facilities’ for prisoners: see Gray, W. J., ‘The English prison medical service: its historical background and more recent developments’, in Wolstenholme, G. E. W. and O'Connor, Maeve, eds., Medical care of prisoners and detainees (Amsterdam, 2009), pp. 129–42, at p. 131Google Scholar; Shapira, Michal, The war inside: psychoanalysis, total war, and the making of the democratic self in postwar Britain (Cambridge, 2013), p. 192CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

118 The benefits of such intervention were recognized in 1932 by the Departmental Offenders Committee, which drew attention to the medical condition of offenders and the likelihood that ‘certain delinquents’ might be ‘amenable to psychological treatment’: Gray, ‘English prison medical service’, pp. 130–1.

119 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 21 June 1938, p. 24.

120 Ibid., 5 May 1938, p. 18.

Ibid

121 Ibid., 12 July 1938, p. 25.

Ibid

122 Norval and Rothman, Oxford history of the prison, p. 143.

123 Ibid.

Ibid

124 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 4 Mar. 1938, p. 8.

125 Ibid., 9 Aug. 1938, p. 30.

Ibid.

126 Ibid., 9 May 1938, p. 18; 21 June 1938, p. 23.

Ibid.

127 Ibid., 14 Aug. 1938, p. 32.

Ibid.

128 Ibid., 5 Nov. 1938, p. 48.

Ibid.

129 Ibid., 5 Nov. 1938, p. 49.

Ibid.

130 Daily Mirror, 26 Sept. 1950, p. 3.

131 Cited in Menis, ‘More insights’, p. 995.

132 Ellen Maria Cook, ‘Understanding adolescent shame and pride in a school context: the impact of perceived academic competence and a growth mindset’ (Ph.D. thesis, Southampton, 2015), p. 20.

133 Reidy, Conor, ‘“The most dangerous, reckless, passionate…period of their lives”: the Irish borstal offender, 1906–1921’, in Cox, Catherine and Riordan, Susannah, eds., Adolescence in modern Irish history (Basingstoke, 2015), pp. 82102, at p. 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

134 Kittermaster, ‘Borstal diary’, 23 June 1939, p. 88.

135 The lasting effects of boarding schools on mental health have been similarly neglected. See Schaverein, Joy, Boarding school syndrome: the psychological trauma of the ‘privileged’ child (London, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

136 Houlbrook, ‘Fashioning an ex-crook self’, p. 1.

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