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ENGAGING THE WORLD: ANTHONY LAKE AND AMERICAN GRAND STRATEGY, 1993–1997*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 March 2016

FRANK L. JONES
Affiliation:
US Army War College
Corresponding

Abstract

Using recently available archival material, this article examines Lake's key beliefs and the part they had in shaping US grand strategy in the first Clinton administration. Lake operated as one of the major architects of the administration's foreign policy. His intellectual influence commenced in the 1992 presidential campaign, when he served as candidate Bill Clinton's principal foreign policy adviser, and continued through the first presidential term, reaching its most concrete manifestation in the Clinton administration's 1994 National security strategy. The article analyses Lake's ideas and his overarching concerns about national purpose, his strategic vision, and his definition of national security policy objectives using the analytical framework known as a mental map. Likewise, it considers his role in articulating a new grand strategy during a period of strategic adjustment, one in which the cold war doctrine of containment no longer applied.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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Footnotes

*

I am grateful to Stephen Gerras for sharing his expertise on psychology, and the two anonymous referees for their constructive comments. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defence, or the US government.

References

1 Daniel Williams, ‘Defining Clinton's foreign policy’, Washington Post, 20 Sept. 1993.

2 Anthony Lake, ‘From containment to enlargement’, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 4 (27 Sept. 1993), http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/briefing/dispatch/1993/html/Dispatchv4no39.html (accessed 13 July 2015); Anthony Lake, ‘From containment to enlargement’, C-SPAN, www.c-span.org/video/?50647–1/clinton-administration-foreign-policy (accessed 13 July 2015); Daniel Williams, ‘Clinton's national security adviser outlines U.S. “strategy of enlargement”’, Washington Post, 22 Sept. 1993.

3 Thomas Friedman, ‘U.S. vision of foreign policy reversed’, New York Times, 22 Sept. 1993.

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11 Hal Brands, What good is grand strategy? Power and purpose in American statecraft from Harry S. Truman to George W. Bush (Ithaca, NY, 2013), p. 3.

12 Ibid.

Ibid

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17 Ibid., pp. 61–70.

Ibid

18 Don M. Snider, The national security strategy: documenting strategic vision (2nd edn, Carlisle, PA, 1995), pp. 10–11.

19 Richard Immerman, ‘Psychology’, in Michael J. Hogan and Thomas G. Patterson, eds., Explaining the history of American foreign relations (2nd edn, New York, NY, 2004), p. 106.

20 Ibid., pp. 115–16.

Ibid

21 Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, fast and slow (New York, NY, 2011), pp. 240, 242, 243.

22 Steve Casey and Jonathan Wright, ‘Introduction’, in Steven Casey and Jonathan Wright, eds., Mental maps in the early cold war era, 1945–1968 (New York, NY, 2011), p. 3.

23 Sydney Finkelstein, Donald C. Hambrick, and Albert A. Cannella, Jr, Strategic leadership: theory and research on executives, top management teams, and boards (New York, NY, 2009), p. 59; Steven E. Lobell, ‘Threat assessment, the state, and foreign policy: a neoclassical realist model’, in Steven E. Lobell, Norrin M. Ripsman, and Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, eds., Neoclassical realism, the state and foreign policy (New York, NY, 2009), p. 45.

24 Alan K. Henrikson, ‘Mental maps’, in Michael J. Hogan and Thomas G. Patterson, eds., Explaining the history of American foreign relations (New York, NY, 1991), pp. 177–8.

25 Finkelstein, Hambrick, and Cannella, Strategic leadership: theory and research, pp. 43–4, 46.

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29 Muscara, Luca, ‘Jean Gottmann's Atlantic “transhumance” and the development of his spatial theory’, Finisterra: Revista Portuguesa de Geografia, 33 (1998), p. 161 Google Scholar.

30 Richard A. Melanson, ‘George Bush's search for a post-cold war grand strategy’, in Kenneth W. Thompson, ed., The Bush presidency: ten intimate perspectives of George Bush (2 vols., Lanham, MD, 1998), ii, p. 159.

31 Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the nation, ix: 1993–1996 (Washington, DC, 1998), p. 187.

32 Dilys M. Hill, ‘The Clinton presidency: the man and his times’, in Paul S. Herrnson and Dilys M. Hill, eds., The Clinton presidency: the first term, 1992–1996 (New York, NY, 1999), p. 5; G. John Ikenberry, After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars (Princeton, NJ, 2001), p. 234.

33 Ikenberry, After victory, p. 234.

34 James A. Baker III with Thomas M. DeFrank, The politics of diplomacy: revolution, war, and peace, 1989–1992 (New York, NY, 1995), pp. 605–6.

35 George Bush, National security strategy of the United States (Washington, DC, 1993), pp. 3, 6, 14.

36 Christopher Maynard, Out of the shadow: George H. W. Bush and the end of the cold war (College Station, TX, 2008), p. 129.

37 Sam Nunn, ‘A new military strategy’, in Nunn 1990: a new military strategy (Washington, DC, 1990), pp. 42–3.

38 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015.

39 Henry Kissinger, World order (New York, NY, 2014), p. 315.

40 Derek Chollet and James Goldgeier, America between the wars: from 11/9 to 9/11 (New York, NY, 2008), p. 29.

41 Huntington, Samuel P., ‘America's changing strategic interests’, Survival, 33 (1991), pp. 3, 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

42 Huntington, Samuel P., ‘Democracy's third wave’, Journal of Democracy, 2 (1991), pp. 12, 20–1, 30, 33–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

43 Jacquet, Pierre, ‘From coexistence to interdependence’, Survival, 34 (1992), pp. 89, 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

44 Krauthammer, Charles, ‘The unipolar moment’, Foreign Affairs, 70 (1990/1), pp. 23, 33CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

45 Layne, Christopher, ‘The unipolar illusion: why new great powers will rise’, International Security, 17 (1993), pp. 5, 78 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

46 Richard Nixon, Seize the moment: America's challenge in a one-superpower world (New York, NY, 1991), pp. 14, 21–6, 33, 36–7. See Fukuyama, Francis, ‘The end of history?’, National Interest, 16 (1989), pp. 318 Google Scholar.

47 John Dumbrell, Clinton's foreign policy: between the Bushes, 1992–2000 (London, 2009), p. 41.

48 Mark A. Lowenthal, The Clinton foreign policy: emerging themes, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress 93–951 S, 1 Nov. 1993, p. 1.

49 Hal Brands, From Berlin to Baghdad: America's search for purpose in the post-cold war world (Lexington, KY, 2008), p. 4.

50 Ibid.

Ibid

51 Ibid.

Ibid

52 Chollet and Goldgeier, America between the wars, p. 63.

53 For the concept of the impact of developmental experience on American policy-makers’ mental maps, see Andrew Preston, ‘John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson’, in Casey and Wright, eds., Mental maps in the early cold war, pp. 264–7. Harold and Margaret Sprout introduced the concept of psycho- and operational milieus. See Henrikson, Alan K., ‘The geographical “mental maps” of American foreign policymakers’, International Political Science Review, 1 (1980), p. 501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

54 Anthony Lake biography, UNICEF Press Centre, www.unicef.org/media/media_53427.html (accessed 30 July 2015); Brian A. Feldman, ‘W. Anthony K. Lake, director of UNICEF’, Harvard Crimson, 23 May 2011, www.thecrimson.com/article/2011/5/23/lake-very-house-lakes/ (accessed 8 Aug. 2015).

55 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015; Nancy Soderberg, The superpower myth: the use and misuse of American might (Hoboken, NJ, 2005), p. 14.

56 Arnold Isaacs, ‘The limits of credibility’, in Robert J. McMahon, ed., Major problems in the history of the Vietnam War: documents and essays (Lexington, MA, 1990), p. 473.

57 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015.

58 Anthony Lake, ‘Introduction’, in The legacy of Vietnam: the war, American society and the future of American foreign policy (New York, NY, 1976), p. xi.

59 Ibid., pp. xi–xiii.

Ibid

60 Lake, Anthony, ‘Africa: do the doable’, Foreign Policy, 54 (1984), p. 108 Google Scholar; Lake, ‘Introduction’, pp. xiv, xviii, xxx; Lake, Anthony and Morris, Roger, ‘The human reality of realpolitik’, Foreign Policy, 4 (1971), p. 162 Google Scholar.

61 Leslie H. Gelb, ‘Foreword’, in Anthony Lake and David Ochmanek, eds., The real and the ideal: essays on international relations in honor of Richard H. Ullman (Lanham, MD, 2001), p. ix.

62 Anthony Lake, David Ochmanek, and Scott Vesel, ‘Richard Ullman and his work: an appreciation’, in ibid., pp. 2, 4, 11–12.

63 Gil Dorland, ed., Legacy of discord: voices of the Vietnam War era (Washington, DC, 2001), p. 128; Soderberg, The superpower myth, p. 14.

64 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015; ‘Poor marks on foreign policy’, Baltimore Sun, 3 Nov. 1993.

65 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015.

66 Lake, Anthony, ‘Lying around Washington’, Foreign Policy, 2 (1971), pp. 93, 94–5Google Scholar.

67 Lake and Morris, ‘The human reality of realpolitik’, p. 160. See also Anthony Lake and Antonia Lake, ‘Coming of age through Vietnam’, New York Times Magazine, 20 July 1975, box 55, Anthony Lake papers (ALP), Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

68 Anthony Lake, The ‘tar baby’ option: American policy toward southern Rhodesia (New York, NY, 1976), p. xii.

69 Thomas L. Hughes, ‘Foreword’, in Lake, The ‘tar baby’ option, pp. vii, ix.

70 Gaddis Smith, Morality, reason, and power: American diplomacy in the Carter years (New York, NY, 1987), p. 44; Vladislav M. Zubok, ‘An offered hand rejected? The Carter administration and the Vance mission to Moscow in March 1977’, in Herbert Rosenbaum and Alexej Ugrinsky, eds., Jimmy Carter: foreign policy and post-presidential years (Westport, CT, 1994), p. 358. David Aaron who served as Carter's deputy national security adviser counted Lake among the ‘junior people’. See ‘Discussant: David L. Aaron’, in Rosenbaum and Ugrinsky, eds., Jimmy Carter: foreign policy and post-presidential years, p. 372.

71 Smith, Morality, reason, and power, p. 44.

72 Policy planning staff, US Department of State, www.state.gov/s/p/ (accessed 31 July 2015).

73 Qu. in Skidmore, Reversing course, p. 88.

74 Action memorandum from Lake to Vance, 4 Feb. 1977, subject: human rights, Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1977–80, ii, Human rights and humanitarian affairs, document 9, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977-80v02/d9 (accessed 31 July 2015); memorandum from the deputy secretary of state-designate (Christopher) to Vance, 9 Feb. 1977, subject: human rights, idem, document 12, n2, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v02/d12 (accessed 31 July 2015).

75 Ibid.

Ibid

76 Anthony Lake, ‘Pragmatism and principle in US foreign policy’ (speech, World Affairs Council, Boston, MA, 13 June 1977), Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, pp. 1–2.

77 Ibid., pp. 2–6.

Ibid

78 Lake's doctoral dissertation is evidence of his interest in Africa. See Anthony Lake, ‘Caution and concern: the making of American policy toward South Africa, 1946–1971’ (Ph.D. diss., Princeton, 1974). For instances of his interest in these policy issues, see as examples, action memorandum from Lake to Vance, 24 Feb. 1977, subject: topics for discussion at cabinet meetings, FRUS, 1977–80, i: Foundations of foreign policy, document 24, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977-80v01/d24 (accessed 31 July 2015); action memorandum from the assistant secretary of state for international organization affairs (Maynes) and Lake to Vance, 3 Mar. 1977, subject: president's speech at the UN general assembly, FRUS, 1977–80, i: Foundations of foreign policy, document 25, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v01/d25 (accessed 31 July 2015); paper prepared by the policy planning staff, undated, FRUS, 1977–80, i: Foundations of foreign policy, document 70, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v01/d70 (accessed 31 July 2015).

79 Lake, Anthony, ‘Africa in a global perspective’ (Christian A. Herter lecture, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, Washington, DC, 27 Oct. 1977), Department of State Bulletin, 78 (12 Dec. 1977), pp. 842–5Google Scholar. For examples of internal Department of State documents, see the following: briefing memorandum from Lake to Vance, 17 June 1977, subject: prospects for expanded Soviet bloc role in north–south problems, FRUS, 1977–80, iii, Foreign economic policy, document 267, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977-80v03/d267 (accessed 31 July 2015); memorandum from Lake and the deputy assistant secretary of state for economic and business affairs (Hormats) to Vance et al., 9 Nov. 1978, subject: north–south strategy for 1979, FRUS, 1977–80, iii: Foreign economic policy, document 321, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v03/d321 (accessed 31 July 1978).

80 Anthony Lake, ‘U.S. policy in southern Africa’ (speech, Chicago council on foreign relations, 25 Apr. 1978), Department of State, Current policy, Apr. 1978, p. 3.

81 Lake, Anthony, ‘The United States and the third world’ (address, African Studies Association and Latin American Studies Association annual meeting, Houston, Texas, 5 Nov. 1977), Department of State Bulletin, 78 (1978), pp. 24–7Google Scholar.

82 Anthony Lake, ‘Managing complexity in U.S. foreign policy’ (speech, World Affairs Council of Northern California, San Francisco, 14 Mar. 1978), Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, p. 1. See also Anthony Lake, letter to Stephen W. Bell, staff reporter, The Advocate, Stamford, CT, 15 Apr. 1980, box 56, ALP.

83 Robert A. Strong, Working in the world: Jimmy Carter and the making of American foreign policy (Baton Rouge, LA, 2000), pp. 108–9; Jimmy Carter, ‘United States Naval Academy address at the commencement exercises’, 7 June 1978, online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American presidency project, www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=30915 (accessed 31 July 2015).

84 Lake, ‘Introduction’, pp. xxviii–xxx.

85 Lake, ‘Africa: do the doable’, pp. 102–21.

86 Woodrow Wilson qu. in Anthony Lake, Somoza falling (Boston, MA, 1989), p. viii.

87 Ibid., p. viii.

Ibid

88 Anthony Lake, Third world radical regimes: US policy under Carter and Reagan, headline series no. 272, Foreign Policy Association, Jan./Feb. 1985, pp. 1, 4–5, 9.

89 Ibid., pp. 4–5.

Ibid

90 Ibid., p. 49.

Ibid

91 Ibid.

Ibid

92 Anthony Lake, typewritten draft of Milwaukee speech with Lake's annotations, 1 Oct. 1992, box 11, ALP; James M. Goldgeier, Not whether, but when: the U.S. decision to enlarge NATO (Washington, DC, 1999), p. 61; Mitchell Locin, ‘Clinton calls Bush foreign policy unprincipled; dictator-friendly’, Chicago Tribune, 2 Oct. 1992; Tim Cuprisin, ‘Clinton set agenda in 1992 speech’, Milwaukee Journal, 5 Jan. 1994.

93 A. M. Rosenthal, ‘On my mind; the Clinton doctrine’, New York Times, 6 Oct. 1992.

94 Anthony Lake, interview by Chris Bury, Sept. 2000, transcript, PBS Frontline, www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/clinton/interviews/lake.html (accessed 28 Mar. 2014); Sébastien Barthe and Charles-Philippe David, Foreign policy-making in the Clinton administration: reassessing Bosnia and the ‘turning point’ of 1995, occasional paper no. 2 (Montreal, 2004), p. 8.

95 Brinkley, Douglas, ‘Democratic enlargement: the Clinton doctrine’, Foreign Policy, 106 (1997), p. 115 Google Scholar.

96 Anthony Lake, telephone interview by author, 13 May 2015.

97 Dumbrell, Clinton's foreign policy, p. 33.

98 William J. Clinton, A national security strategy of engagement and enlargement (Washington, DC, 1994), pp. 1–2.

99 Ibid., p. i.

Ibid

100 Ibid., pp. ii, 1–2.

Ibid

101 Ibid., pp. 5, 7, 15, 17, 19.

Ibid

102 Anthony Lake, ‘The reach of democracy: tying power to diplomacy’, New York Times, 23 Sept. 1994; Anthony Lake, ‘American power and American democracy’, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 5 (14 Nov. 1994); Anthony Lake, ‘The need for engagement’, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 5 (5 Dec. 1994).

103 Lake, ‘American power and American democracy’.

104 Anthony Lake, ‘Defining missions, setting deadlines: meeting new security challenges in the post-cold war world’ (address, George Washington University, Washington, DC, Mar. 1996), U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 7 (Mar. 1996), pp. 128, 129.

105 Anthony Lake, ‘Laying the foundations for a new American century’ (address, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 25 Apr. 1996), U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 7 (Apr. 1996), pp. 209–11. See also Anthony Lake, ‘“Partnership” plan will foster stability’, Seattle Times, 11 Jan. 1994, and idem, ‘How partnership for peace will build security in Europe’, Boston Globe, 12 Jan. 1994, boxes 16 and 57, respectively, ALP.

106 Lake, Anthony, ‘China: a report from the top’, New Perspectives Quarterly, 13 (1996), p. 53 Google Scholar.

107 James Kitfield, ‘They still need us’, interview of Anthony Lake, Government Executive, Sept. 1996, p. 48.

108 H. W. Brands, ‘Ideas and foreign affairs’, in Robert D. Schulzinger, ed., A companion to American foreign relations (Malden, MA, 2003), p. 2.

109 Cottram and McCoy, ‘Image change and problem representation’, p. 117.

110 Brands, ‘Ideas and foreign affairs’, p. 1.

111 Anthony Lake, ‘Warren and Anita Manshel Lecture’ (speech, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 21 Oct. 1994), box 62, ALP.

112 Williamson Murray and Mark Grimsley, ‘Introduction: on strategy’, in Williamson Murray, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein, eds., The making of strategy: rulers, states, and war (New York, NY, 1999), p. 20.

113 Anthony Lake, ‘Directions in U.S. foreign policy: interests and ideals’, Seventeenth Morgenthau memorial lecture on ethics & foreign policy (New York, NY, 1998), p. 11.

114 Ibid., p. 12.

Ibid

115 John Quincy Adams, ‘Speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on foreign policy’ (4 July 1821), http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3484 (accessed 31 Mar. 2014).

116 Lake, ‘Directions in US foreign policy: interests and ideals’, pp. 12, 15–18, 20.

117 Walter Russell Mead, Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world (New York, NY, 2001), pp. 174–217. An even earlier and trenchant discussion of the Jeffersonian tradition and Jefferson's foreign policy can be found in Tucker, Robert W. and Hendrickson, David C., ‘Thomas Jefferson and American foreign policy’, Foreign Affairs, 69 (1990), pp. 135–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See Dumbrell, Clinton's foreign policy, p. 42. Dumbrell terms Lake's foreign policy approach as having ‘neo-Jeffersonian’ elements.

118 Henry Kissinger, Does America need a foreign policy? (New York, NY, 2001), pp. 238–9.

119 Hyland, Clinton's world, p. 21.

120 John Kane, Between virtue and power: the persistent moral dilemma of US foreign policy (New Haven, CT, 2008), p. 12.

121 Ibid., p. 45.

Ibid

122 Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, Empire of liberty: the statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (New York, NY, 1990), p. 4.

123 Newbold, Stephanie, ‘Statesmanship and ethics: the case of Thomas Jefferson's dirty hands’, Public Administration Review, 63 (2005), pp. 669–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

124 Tucker and Hendrickson, Empire of liberty, pp. viii, ix, 236.

125 Walter LaFeber, ‘Jefferson and American foreign policy’, in Peter S. Onuf, ed., Jeffersonian legacies (Charlottesville, VA, 1999), p. 389, qu. in Jason Ralph, ‘What exactly is the Jeffersonian tradition in US foreign policy?’, paper presented at the international studies association annual conference, San Francisco, CA, 29 Mar. 2008, p. 9.

126 Tucker and Hendrickson, Empire of liberty, p. 255; Tucker and Hendrickson, ‘Jefferson and American foreign policy’, pp. 137, 138.

127 Tucker and Hendrickson, ‘Jefferson and American foreign policy’, p. 152.

128 Cecil V. Crabb, Jr, The American approach to foreign policy: a pragmatic perspective (Lanham, MD, 1985), p. xiii.

129 Robert Endicott Osgood, Ideals and self-interest in America's foreign relations (Chicago, IL, 1953), p. 441.

130 See Ian Clark, The hierarchy of states: reform and resistance in the international order, Cambridge Studies in International Relations 7 (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 49–66.

131 Anthony Lake, 3x5 note cards, undated, box 55, ALP.

132 G. John Ikenberry, ‘Woodrow Wilson, the Bush administration, and the future of liberal internationalism’, in G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, Anne-Marie Slaughter, and Tony Smith, The crisis of American foreign policy: Wilsonianism in the twenty-first century (Princeton, NJ, 2009), p.10. See also Dumbrell, Clinton's foreign policy, p. 42. Dumbrell mentions the ‘traditional Wilsonian’ strain in Lake's thinking.

133 Ikenberry, ‘Woodrow Wilson’, pp. 3, 14.

134 Kane, John, ‘US leadership and international order: the future of American foreign policy’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 63 (2009), p. 584 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

135 Lake, ‘Commencement address’ (speech, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 28 May 1995), box 63, ALP.

136 Tucker and Hendrickson, ‘Jefferson and American foreign policy’, p. 137; Tucker, Robert W., ‘The triumph of Wilsonianism?’, World Policy Journal, 10 (1993), pp. 84–6Google Scholar.

137 Tucker, ‘The triumph of Wilsonianism?’, p. 84; Ralph, ‘What exactly is the Jeffersonian tradition?’, pp. 3, 5.

138 Anne-Marie Slaughter, ‘Wilsonianism in the twenty-first century’, in Ikenberry et al., The crisis of American foreign policy, p. 91.

139 Anthony Lake, Lecture on United States relations with Africa (speech, Howard University, history department's fall lecture series, Washington, DC, 17 Oct. 1977), box 59, ALP.

140 Tony Smith, ‘Wilsonianism after Iraq: the end of liberal internationalism?’, in Ikenberry et al., The crisis of American foreign policy, pp. 66–7.

141 For the argument about making the world safe for democracy in the twenty-first century, see Slaughter, ‘Wilsonianism in the twenty-first century’, p. 109. Lake's perspective is found in his notes on foreign policy speech meeting with President Clinton, 30 Jan. 1993, box 43, and ‘Remarks’ (Brookings African forum luncheon, Washington, DC, 3 May 1993), box 63, ALP.

142 Lake, ‘Directions in U.S. foreign policy: interests and ideals’, p. 21; Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Jr, Power and interdependence (Boston, MA, 1977), p. 4.

143 Doyle, Michael W., ‘Kant, liberal legacies, and affairs’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 12 (1983), pp. 205–35Google Scholar; idem, Kant, liberal legacies, and affairs, part 2’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 12 (1983), pp. 323–53Google Scholar.

144 Dumbrell, Clinton's foreign policy, p. 42. Dumbrell believes that Lake sought to tie together ideas from Wilson and Kant to develop the concept of enlargement.

145 Lake, ‘Africa: do the doable’, p. 108.

146 Ikenberry, After victory, pp. 215–16; Anthony Lake, ‘The purpose of American power’ (address, council on foreign relations, Washington, DC, 12 Sept. 1994), and Lake, notes for a speech (council on foreign relations, Washington, DC, 6 Dec. 1995), boxes 62 and 63, respectively, ALP.

147 ‘U.S. foreign policy: no easy answers’, Christian Science Monitor, 1 Aug. 1994.

148 For a discussion of the struggle between virtue and power in US foreign policy, see Kane, Between virtue and power, pp. 2, 32–49.

149 Ikenberry, After victory, p. 235.

150 Chace, James, ‘American newness revisited’, World Policy Journal, 17 (2000), p. 97 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Schlesinger, Stephen, ‘The end of idealism: foreign policy in the Clinton years’, World Policy Journal, 15 (1998/9), p. 40 Google Scholar; Clinton's foreign policy’, Foreign Policy, 121 (2000), p. 18 Google Scholar.

151 Erving Goffman, Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience (New York, NY, 1974), p. 21.

152 Brinkley, ‘Democratic enlargement’, pp. 119, 121.

153 Roskin, Michael, ‘From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam: shifting generational paradigms and foreign policy’, Political Science Quarterly, 89 (1974), pp. 563–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

154 Gershman, Carl, ‘The rise & fall of the new foreign-policy establishment’, Commentary, 76 (1980), p. 131 Google Scholar; Michael Elliott, ‘Damned Yankees’, Newsweek, 25 Oct. 1993, in Ebscohost (accessed 29 Jan. 2014).

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