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Induced and Permanent Magnetism on the Moon: Structural and Evolutionary Implications

  • C. P. Sonett (a1), P. Dyal (a1), D. S. Colburn (a1), B. F. Smith (a2), G. Schubert (a2), K. Schwartz (a3), J. D. Mihalov (a4) and C. W. Parkin (a4)...

Abstract

It is shown that the Moon possesses an extraordinary response to induction from the solar wind due to a combination of a high interior electrical conductivity together with a relatively resistive crustal layer into which the solar wind dynamic pressure forces back the induced field. The dark side response, devoid of solar wind pressure, is approximately that expected for the vacuum case. These data permit an assessment of the interior conductivity and an estimate of the thermal gradient in the crustal region. The discovery of a large permanent magnetic field at the Apollo 12 site corresponds approximately to the paleomagnetic residues discovered in both Apollo 11 and 12 rock samples The implications regarding an early lunar magnetic field are discussed and it is shown that among the various conjectures regarding the early field the most prominent are either an interior dynamo or an early approach to the Earth though no extant model is free of difficulties.

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References

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[1] Gold, T.: 1966, ‘The Magnetosphere of the Moon’, in The Solar Wind (ed. by Mackin, R. J. and Neugebauer, M.), Pergamon Press, New York.
[2] Dolginov, Sh.Sh., Eroshenko, E. G., Zhozov, L. N., and Pushkov, N. V.: 1966, ‘Measurements of the Magnetic Field in the Vicinity of the Moon by the Artificial Satellite Luna 10’, Dokl. Akad. Nauk U.S.S.R. 170, 574.
[3] Colburn, D. S., Currie, R. G., Mihalov, J. D., and Sonett, C. P.: 1967, ‘Diamagnetic Solar Wind Cavity Discovered Behind the Moon’, Science 158, 1040.
[4] Sonett, C. P., Colburn, D. S., and Currie, R. G.: 1967, ‘The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of the Moon’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5503.
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[6] Ness, N. F.: 1971, ‘Interaction of the Solar Wind with the Moon’, NASA/GSFC preprint X692-70-141, Proc. STP Leningrad Symposium, Reidel, D., Dordrecht, in press.
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[8] Sonett, C. P. and Dyal, P.: 1970, ‘The Moon: Global Electromagnetic Sounding Using the Solar Wind’, Comments Astrophys. Space Phys. 2, 5.
[9] Sonett, C. P. and Colburn, D. S.: 1967, ‘Establishment of a Lunar Unipolar Generator and Associated Shock and Wake by the Solar Wind’, Nature 216, 340.
[10] Sonett, C. P. and Colburn, D. S.: 1968, ‘The Principle of Solar Wind Induced Dynamos’, Earth Planetary Interiors 1, 326.
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[16] Ogilvie, K. W. and Ness, N. F.: 1969, ‘Dependence of the Lunar Wake on Solar Wind Plasma Characteristics’, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4123.
[17] Sonett, C. P., Dyal, P., Parkin, C. W., Colburn, D. S., Mihalov, J. D., and Smith, B. F.: ‘On the Whole Body Response of the Moon to Electromagnetic Induction by the Solar Wind’, Science, in press.
[18] Nagata, T., Rikitake, T., and Kono, M.: 1900, ‘Electrical Conductivity and the Age of the Moon’, preprint.
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Runcorn, S. K., Collinson, D. W., O’Reilly, W., Battey, M. H., Stephenson, A., Jones, J. M., Manson, A. J., and Readman, P. W.: ‘Magnetic Properties of Apollo 11 Lunar Samples’, pp. 2369-2387.
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[22] Singer, S. F.: 1969, Trans. AGU, Natl. Fall Mtg.

Additional general references completed since writing of this paper are as follows:

Barnes, A., Cassen, P., Mihalov, J. D., and Eviatar, A.: ‘Permanent Lunar Surface Magnetism and Its Deflection of the Solar Wind’ (Submitted to Science).
Dyal, P., Parkin, C. W., Sonett, C. P., and Colburn, D. S.: ‘Electrical Conductivity and Temperature of the Lunar Interior From Magnetic Transient Response Measurements’, NASA TMX-62, 012. (Also submitted to J. Geophys. Res.).
Mihalov, J. H., Sonett, C. P., Binsack, J. H., and Mitsoulas, M. D.: ‘Possible Fossil Lunar Magnetism Inferred From Satellite Data’. (Science - In press).
Sonett, C. P., Smith, B. F., Colburn, D. S., Schubert, G., Schwartz, K., Dyal, P., and Parkin, C. W.: ‘The Lunar Electrical Conductivity Profile: Mantle-Core Stratification, Near Surface Thermal Gradient, Heat Flux, and Composition’. (Submitted to Nature).
Sonett, C. P., Dyal, P., Parkin, C. W., Colburn, D. S., Mihalov, J. H., and Smith, B. F.: ‘Whole Body Response of the Moon to Electromagnetic Induction by the Solar Wind’. (Science - In press).

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