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Bremsstrahlung emission from high power laser interactions with constrained targets for industrial radiography

  • C. D. Armstrong (a1) (a2), C. M. Brenner (a2), C. Jones (a3), D. R. Rusby (a2), Z. E. Davidson (a1), Y. Zhang (a2) (a4), J. Wragg (a2), S. Richards (a2), C. Spindloe (a2), P. Oliveira (a2), M. Notley (a2), R. Clarke (a2), S. R. Mirfayzi (a5), S. Kar (a5), Y. Li (a4), T. Scott (a3), P. McKenna (a1) and D. Neely (a2)...


Laser–solid interactions are highly suited as a potential source of high energy X-rays for nondestructive imaging. A bright, energetic X-ray pulse can be driven from a small source, making it ideal for high resolution X-ray radiography. By limiting the lateral dimensions of the target we are able to confine the region over which X-rays are produced, enabling imaging with enhanced resolution and contrast. Using constrained targets we demonstrate experimentally a $(20\pm 3)~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ X-ray source, improving the image quality compared to unconstrained foil targets. Modelling demonstrates that a larger sheath field envelope around the perimeter of the constrained targets increases the proportion of electron current that recirculates through the target, driving a brighter source of X-rays.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: C. D. Armstrong, R1, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Oxford OX11 0QX, UK. Email:


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