Alleyne-Green, B, Kulick, A, Bonds Grocher, K, DeLoach McCutcheon, K and Betancourt, TS (2019) The impact of war violence exposure and psychological distress on parenting practices among a sample of young adults affected by war post-conflict Sierra Leone. Peace & Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 25, 325–344.
Bennett, C, Barlow, J, Huband, N, Smailagic, N and Roloff, V (2013) Group-based parenting programs for improving parenting and psychosocial functioning: a systematic review. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research 4, 300–332.
Betancourt, TS, Meyers-Ohki, S, Charrow, A and Tol, WA (2013) Interventions for children affected by war: an ecological perspective on psychosocial support and mental health care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 21, 70–91.
Biglan, A, Flay, BR, Embry, DE and Sandler, IN (2012) The critical role of nurturing environments for promoting human well-being. American Psychologist 67, 257–271.
Bradley, EH, Curry, LA and Devers, KJ (2007) Qualitative data analysis for health services research: developing taxonomy, themes, and theory. Health Services Research 42, 1758–1752.
Brown, FL, Whittingham, K, Sofronoff, K and Bouyd, R (2013) Parenting a child with a traumatic brain injury: experiences of parents and health professionals. Brain Injury 27, 1570–1582.
Clark, CJ, Everson-Rose, SA, Franco Suglia, S, Btoush, R, Alonso, A and Haj-Yahia, MM (2010) Association between exposure to political violence and intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet 375, 310–316.
Coatsworth, JD, Duncan, L, Nix, R, Greenberg, M, Gayles, JG, Bamberger, KT, Berrena, E and Demi, MA (2015) Integrating mindfulness with parent training: effects of the mindfulness-enhanced strengthening families program. Developmental Psychology 51, 26–35.
Conger, RD, Conger, KJ and Martin, MJ (2010) Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 685–704.
Eggerman, M and Panter-Brick, C (2010) Suffering, hope, and entrapment: resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan. Social Science and Medicine 71, 71–83. Elsevier Ltd, 71(1), pp. 71–83
El-Khani, A, Ulph, F, Peters, S and Calam, R (2016) Syria: the challenges of parenting in refugee situations of immediate displacement. Intervention 14. doi: 10.1097/WTF.0000000000000118
Eltanamly, H, Leijten, P, Jak, S and Overbeek, G (2019) Parenting in times of war: a meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis of war exposure, parenting, and child adjustment. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. doi: 10.1177/1524838019833001
Fung, K (2015) Acceptance and commitment therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets? Transcultural Psychiatry 52, 561–576.
Hayes, SC (2002) Buddhism and acceptance and commitment therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 9, 58–66. doi: 10.1016/S1077-7229(02)80041-4.
Jackson, AP and Choi, J (2018) Parenting stress, harsh parenting, and children's behavior. Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health 5, 1150.
Jordans, MJD, Tol, WA, Ndayisaba, A and Komproe, I (2013) A controlled evaluation of a brief parenting psychoeducation intervention in Burundi. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 1851–1859.
Kaiser, BN, Haroz, E, Khort, B, Bolton, PA, Bass, JK and Hinton, D (2015) ‘Thinking too much’: a systematic review of a common idiom of distress. Social Science and Medicine 147, 170–183.
Khamis, V (2016) Does parent's psychological distress mediate the relationship between war trauma and psychosocial adjustment in children? Journal of Health Psychology 21, 1361–1370.
Knerr, W, Gardner, F and Cluver, L (2013) Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Prevention Science 14, 352–363.
Kornfield, J (1993) A Path with Heart. New York: Bantam Books.
Masarik, AS and Conger, RD (2017) Stress and child development: a review of the Family Stress Model. Current Opinion in Psychology 13, 85–90.
Masten, AS and Narayan, AJ (2012) Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: pathways of risk and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology 63, 227–257. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100356.
McLoyd, VC (1990) The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development 61, 311–346.
Mejia, A, Ulph, F and Calam, R (2016) Exploration of mechanisms behind changes after participation in a parenting intervention: a qualitative study in a low-resource setting. American Journal of Community Psychology 57, 181–189.
Miller, KE, Arnous, M, Tossyeh, F, Chen, A, Nakolis, I, Koppenol-Gonzalez, GV, Nahas, N and Jordans, MJD (2020) Protocol for a randomized control trial of the caregiver support intervention with Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Trials 21. doi: 10.1186/s13063-020-4175-9.
Miller, KE, Koppenol-Gonzalez, GV, Arnous, M, Tossyeh, F, Chen, A, Nahas, N, Jordans, MJD (2020). Supporting Syrian families displaced by armed conflict: A pilot randomized controlled trial of the caregiver support intervention. Child Abuse and Neglect 106. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104512.
Miller, KE, Omidian, P, Quraishy, A, Quraishy, N, Nasiry, N, Nassiry, S, Karyar, N and Yaqubi, A (2006) The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76, 423–433.
Nowell, LS, Norris, JM, White, DE and Moules, N (2017) Thematic analysis: striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 16, 1–13.
Palosaari, E, Punamäki, R-L, Quota, S and Diab, M (2013) Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect 37, 955–968. Elsevier Ltd, 37(11), pp. 955–968.
Panter-Brick, C, Burgess, A, Eggerman, M, McAllister, F, Pruett, K and Leckman, J (2014a) Practitioner review: engaging fathers – recommendations for a game change in parenting interventions based on a systematic review of the global evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 55, 1187–1212.
Panter-Brick, C, Grimon, MP and Eggerman, M (2014b) Caregiver–child mental health: a prospective study in conflict and refugee settings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 55, 313–327.
Pastor, C, Ciurana, A, Navajas, A, Cojocaru, D and Vázquez, N (2015) Positive parenting: lessons from research. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala 51, 227–239.
Pedersen, GA, Smallegange, E, Coetzee, A, Hartog, K, Turner, JS, Jordans, MJ and Brown, FL (2019) A systematic review of the evidence for family and parenting interventions in low- and middle-income countries: child and youth mental health outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2036–2055. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01399-4
Puffer, ES, Annan, J, Sim, A, Salhi, C and Betancourt, TS (2017) The impact of a family skills training intervention among Burmese migrant families in Thailand: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172611
Puffer, ES, Green, E, Sim, A, Zayzay, J, Friis Healy, EA, Garcia-Rolland, E and Boone, L (2015) Parents make the difference: a randomized-controlled trial of a parenting intervention in Liberia. Global Mental Health 2. doi: 10.1017/gmh.2015.12
Rees, S, Thorpe, R, Tol, W, Fonseca, M and Silove, D (2015) Testing a cycle of family violence model in conflict-affected, low-income countries: a qualitative study from Timor-Leste. Social Science & Medicine 130, 284–291.
Saile, R, Ertl, V, Neuner, F and VCatani, C (2014) Does war contribute to family violence against children: findings from a two-generational multi-informant study in Northern Uganda. Child Abuse and Neglect 38, 135–146.
Sanders, MR, Kirby, J, Tellegen, C and Day, J (2014) The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clinical Psychology Review 34, 337–357.
Scharpf, F, Kyaruzi, E, Landolt, MA and Hecker, T (2019) Prevalence and co-existence of morbidity of posttraumatic stress and functional impairment among Burundian refugee children and their parents. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 10. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2019.1676005.
Sim, A, Fazel, M, Bowes, L and Gardener, F (2018) Pathways linking war and displacement to parenting and child adjustment: a qualitative study with Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Social Science and Medicine 200, 19–26.
Singla, DR, Kumbakumba, E and Aboud, FE (2015) Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Global Health 3. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND, e458–e469.
Song, SJ, Tol, W and de Jong, J (2014) Indero: intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children. Family Process 53, 239–251.
Tol, WA, Augustinvicius, J, Carswell, K, Brown, F, Adaku, A, Leku, MR, Garcia-Moreno, C, Ventevogel, P, White, R and van Ommeren, M (2018) Translation, adaptation, and pilot of a guided self-help intervention to reduce psychological distress in South Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Global Mental Health 5. doi: 10.1017/gmh.2018.14
Wachter, K, Horn, R, Friis Healy, EA, Falb, K, Ward, L, Apio, C, Wanjiku, S and Puffer, E (2018) Drivers of intimate partner violence against women in three refugee camps. Violence Against Women 24, 286–306. doi: 10.1177/1077801216689163
Ward, C, Sanders, M, Gardner, F, Mikton, C and Dawes, A (2016) Preventing child maltreatment in low- and middle-income countries. Parent support programs have the potential to buffer the effects of poverty. Child Abuse and Neglect 54, 97–107. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.002
Yardley, L, Ainsworth, B, Arden-Close, E and Muller, I (2015) The person-based approach to enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of interventions. Pilot and Feasibility Studies 1. doi: 10.1186/s40814-015-0033-z.
Yassin, N (2018) Facts & figures on the Syrian refugee crisis. Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy, American University of Beiriut (Accessed 15 January 2020), pp. 9–135.