Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Correlates of expected eMental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China

  • Brian J. Hall (a1) (a2), Wei Shi (a1), Melissa R. Garabiles (a1) (a3) and Edward W. W. Chan (a1)

Abstract

Background.

Transnational migrant populations face critical barriers to mental health service utilization that perpetuate mental health disparities globally. Overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) number over 2 million globally and 25% are female domestic workers. Structural barriers prevent equitable access to mental health services for this population. Electronic mental health (eMental Health) intervention is a scalable alternative to face-to-face treatment. The current study sought to identify key correlates of intention to use eMental Health within a community of female Filipino domestic workers living and working in Macao (SAR), China.

Methods.

Respondent-driven sampling implemented at a community field site was used to reach a sample of 1364 female domestic workers. A multivariable adjusted partial proportional-odds (PPO) model was used to assess relevant correlates of intent to use eMental Health.

Results.

The majority (62.8%) reported being likely to utilize eMental Health. The adjusted PPO model showed that younger age (18–25, 26–35, 36–45 v. over 55), longer time as an OFW, being likely (v. neutral and unlikely) to seek professional services, willingness to pay for services (v. not), belief that mental health services are a priority (v. low priority), having access to Wi-Fi outside the employer's home (v. not), and higher levels of social support were associated with increased odds of intent to use eMental Health.

Conclusions.

eMental Health is a promising intervention with high potential for uptake among OFWs. The majority of the study population owned a smartphone and were able to connect to the Internet or Wi-Fi. Future work will rigorously evaluate eMental Health programs for use among OFWs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Correlates of expected eMental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Correlates of expected eMental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Correlates of expected eMental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Brian J. Hall, Global and Community Mental Health Research Group, University of Macau, E21-3040, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau (SAR), People's Republic of China. (Email: brianhall@umac.mo)

References

Hide All
Andersson, G, Bergström, J, Holländare, F, Carlbring, P, Kaldo, V, Ekselius, L (2005). Internet-based self-help for depression: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 187, 456461.
Andersson, G, Cuijpers, P, Carlbring, P, Riper, H, Hedman, E (2014). Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 13, 288295.
Andrews, G, Cuijpers, P, Craske, MG, Mcevoy, P, Titov, N (2010). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 5, e13196.
Apolinário-Hagen, J, Kemper, J, Stürmer, C (2017). Public acceptability of E-Mental health treatment services for psychological problems: a scoping review. Journal of Internet Medical Research 4, e10.
Arjadi, R, Nauta, MH, Chowdhary, N, Bockting, CLH (2015). A systematic review of online interventions for mental health in low and middle income countries: a neglected field. Global Mental Health 2, 16 doi: 10.1017/gmh.2015.10.
Battistella, G, Asis, MMB (2011). Protecting Filipino transnational domestic workers: Government regulations and their outcomes. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Discussion Paper Series No. 2011–12, 156.
Bee, PE, Bower, P, Lovell, K, Gilbody, S, Richards, D, Gask, L, Roach, P (2008). Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review. BMC Psychiatry 8, 113.
Bennett-Levy, J, Richards, DA, Farrand, P (2010). Low intensity CBT interventions: a revolution in mental health care. Oxford Guide to Low Intensity CBT Interventions (eds. Bennett-Levy, J., Richards, D. A., Farrand, P., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., Kavanagh, D. J., Klein, B., Lau, M. A., Proudfoot, J., Ritterband, L., White, J., Williams, C.), pp. 318. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
Bhopal, RS (2007). Ethnicity, Race, and Health in Multicultural Societies. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Bhugra, D (2004). Migration and mental health. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109, 243258.
Bhugra, D, Jones, P (2001). Migration and mental illness. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7, 216222.
Bockting, CLH, Williams, AD, Carswell, K, Grech, AE (2016). The potential of low-intensity and online interventions for depression in low- and middle-income countries. Global Mental Health 3, 15. doi:10.1017/gmh.2016.21
Casey, LM, Joy, A, Clough, BA (2013). The impact of information on attitudes toward e-mental health services. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16, 8.
Chen, W, Hall, BJ, Ling, L, Renzaho, AM (2017). Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave data of the BNLA cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry 4, 218229.
Eaton, J, Mccay, L, Semrau, M, Chatterjee, S, Baingana, F, Araya, R, Ntulo, C, Thornicroft, G, Saxena, S (2011). Scale up of services for mental health in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet 10, 5921603.
Fassaert, T, De Wit, MAS, Tuinebreijer, WC, Verhoeff, AP, Beekman, ATF, Dekker, J (2009). Perceived need for mental health care among non-western labour migrants. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 44, 208216.
Gaebel, W, Grossimlinghau, I, Mucic, D, Maercker, A, Zielasek, J, Kerst, A (2017). EPA guidance on eMental health interventions in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). European Psychiatry 41, 140152.
Garabiles, M, Ofreneo, M, Hall, BJ (2017). Towards a theory of resilience for transnational families of Filipina domestic workers. PLoS ONE 12, e0183703.
Giacco, D, Matanov, A, Priebe, S (2014). Providing mental healthcare to immigrants: current challenges and new strategies. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 27, 282288.
Hall, BJ, Garabiles, MR, Latkin, C (under review). Filipino Domestic Workers in China: a qualitative needs assessment.
Hall, BJ, Lam, AIF, Wu, TL, Hou, WK, Latkin, C, Galea, S (2017). The epidemiology of current depression in Macau, China: towards a plan for mental health action. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 52, 12271235.
Hall, BJ, Pangan, CAC, Chan, EWW, Huang, RL (under review). The buffering effect of social capital on perceived discrimination on depression and anxiety symptoms among female domestic workers in Macao, China.
Hansen, MC, Cabassa, LJ (2012). Pathways to depression care: help-seeking experiences of low-income Latinos with diabetes and depression. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 14, 10971106.
Hechanova, MRM, Tuliao, AP, Teh, LA, Alianan, AS, Acosta, A (2013). Problem severity, technology adoption, and intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking 16, 613617.
Heckathorn, DD (1997) Respondent-driven sampling: a new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems 44, 174199.
Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S (2000) Applied Logistic Regression. Wiley: New York.
Hovey, JD, Magaña, CG (2002). Exploring the mental health of Mexican migrant farm workers in the Midwest: psychosocial predictors of psychological distress and suggestions for prevention and treatment. The Journal of Psychology 136, 493513.
Hunt, J, Eisenberg, D (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health 46, 310.
Kaltman, S, Hurtado De Mendoza, A, Gonzales, FA, Serrano, A (2014). Preferences for trauma-related mental health services among Latina immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 6, 8391.
Kantor, V, Knefel, M, Lueger-Schuster, B (2017). Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review 52, 5268.
Keane, MC, Roeger, LS, Allison, S, Reed, RL (2013). e-Mental health in South Australia: impact of age, gender and region of residence. Australian Journal of Primary Health 19, 331335.
Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW (2001). The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16, 606613.
Lauber, C, Rössler, W (2007) Stigma towards people with mental illness in developing countries in Asia. International Review of Psychiatry 19, 157178.
Leong, FT, Lau, AS (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian Americans. Mental Health Services Research 3, 201214.
Lincoln, KD (2000). Social support, negative social interactions, and psychological well-being. The Social Service Review 74, 231252.
Lindencrona, F, Ekblad, S, Hauff, E (2008). Mental health of recently resettled refugees from the Middle East in Sweden: the impact of pre-resettlement trauma, resettlement stress and capacity to handle stress. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 121131.
Lindert, J, von Ehrenstein, OS, Priebe, S, Mielck, A, Brähler, E (2009). Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine 69, 246257.
Macao Labour Affairs Bureau (2017). (Graph illustration number of non-resident workers by industry and country/region of issuance of identification document, November, 2017). Public data source from Human Resources Office, Labour Affairs Bureau, Government of the Macao Special Administrative Region. Retrieved from http://www.dsal.gov.mo/en/standard/download_statistics/folder/root.html.
McCullagh, P (1980). Regression models for ordinal data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 42, 109142.
McLafferty, M, Lapsley, CR, Ennis, E, Armour, C, Murphy, S, Bunting, BP, Bjourson, AJ, Murray, EK, O'Neill, SM (2017). Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland. PLoS ONE 12, e0188785.
Mendoza, NB, Mordeno, IG, Latkin, CA, Hall, BJ (2017). Evidence of the paradoxical effect of social network support: a study among Filipino domestic workers in China. Psychiatry Research 255, 263271.
Mickey, J, Greenland, S (1989). A study of the impact of confounder-selection criteria on effect estimation. American Journal of Epidemiology 129, 125137.
Mordeno, IG, Hall, BJ (2017). DSM-5-based latent PTSD models: assessing structural relations with GAD in Filipino post-relocatees. Psychiatry Research 258, 18.
Murphy, HBM (1977). Migration, culture and mental health. Psychological Medicine 7, 677684.
Newsom, JT, Rook, KS, Nishishiba, M, Sorkin, DH, Mahan, TL (2005). Understanding the relative importance of positive and negative social exchanges: examining specific domains and appraisals. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 60, 304312.
Orozco, R, Borges, G, Medina-Mora, ME, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Breslau, J (2013). A cross-national study on prevalence of mental disorders, service use, and adequacy of treatment among Mexican and Mexican American populations. American Journal of Public Health 103, 16101618.
Pantelidou, S, Craig, TKJ (2006). Culture shock and social support. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 777781.
Patel, V, Chowdhary, N, Rahman, A, Verdeli, H (2011). Improving access to psychological treatments: lessons from developing countries. Behaviour Research and Therapy 49, 523528.
Philippine Statistics Authority (2017). 2016 Survey on Overseas Filipinos. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/content/2016-survey-overseas-filipinos.
Ponizovsky, AM, Ritsner, MS (1999). Suicide ideation among recent immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union: an epidemiological survey of prevalence and risk factors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 29, 376392.
Price, M, Williamson, D, McCandless, R, Mueller, M, Gregoski, M, Brunner-Jackson, B, Treiber, E, Davidson, L, Treiber, F (2013). Hispanic migrant farm workers’ attitudes toward mobile phone-based telehealth for management of chronic health conditions. Journal of Medical Internet Research 15, e76.
Riper, H, Blankers, M, Hadiwijaya, H, Cunningham, J, Clarke, S, Wiers, R, Ebert, D, Cuijpers, P (2014). Effectiveness of guided and unguided low-intensity internet interventions for adult alcohol misuse: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 9, e99912.
Riper, H, Spek, V, Boon, B, Conijn, B, Kramer, J, Martin-Abello, K, Smit, F (2011). Effectiveness of e-self-help interventions for curbing adult problem drinking: a meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 13, e42.
Ruzek, JI, Yeager, CM (2017). Internet and mobile technologies: addressing the mental health of trauma survivors in less resourced communities. Global Mental Health 4, 113. doi:10.1017/gmh.2017.11.
Selmi, PM, Klein, MH, Greist, JH, Sorrell, SP, Erdman, HP (1990). Computer-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 5156.
Sijbrandij, M, Kunovski, I, Cuijpers, P (2016). Effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety 33, 783791.
Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JB, Löwe, B (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine 166, 10921097.
StataCorp (2015). Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. [Computer software]. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP. Retrieved from https://www.stata.com/.
Titov, N, Andrews, G, Davies, M, Mcintyre, K, Robinson, E, Solley, K (2010). Internet treatment for depression: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance. PLoS ONE 5, e10939.
Vega, WA, Kolody, B, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Catalano, R (1999). Gaps in service utilization by Mexican Americans with mental health problems. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 928934.
Vogel, DL, Wade, NG, Wester, SR, Larson, L, Hackler, AH (2007). Seeking help from a mental health professional: the influence of one's social network. Journal of Clinical Psychology 63, 233245.
United Nations (2015). Trends in International Migrants Stock: the 2015 Revision. The Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations: New York.
Walls, CA, Rhodes, KV, Kennedy, JJ (2002). The emergency department as usual source of medical care: estimates from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. Academic Emergency Medicine 9, 11401145.
Wells, A, Lagomasino, IT, Palinkas, LA, Green, JM, Gonzalez, D (2013). Barriers to depression treatment among low-income, Latino emergency department patients. Community Mental Health Journal 49, 412418.
Wetterlin, FM, Mar, MY, Neilson, EK, Werker, GR, Krausz, M (2014). Emental health experiences and expectations: a survey of youths’ web-based resource preferences in Canada. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16, 18.
Williams, R (2006). Generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables. The Stata Journal 6, 5882.
World Health Organization (2015). Thinking Healthy: A Manual for Psychosocial Management of Perinatal Depression (WHO Generic eld-Trial Version 1.0). World Health Organization: Geneva.
World Health Organization (2016) Problem Management Plus (PM+): Individual Psychological Help for Adults Impaired by Distress in Communities Exposed to Adversity. (Generic eld-trial version 1.0). WHO: Geneva.
Wright, JH, Wright, AS, Albano, AM, Basco, MR, Goldsmith, LJ, Raffield, T, Otto, MW (2005). Computer-assisted cognitive therapy for depression: maintaining efficacy while reducing therapist time. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 11581164.
Ye, X, Bapuji, SB, Winters, SE, Struthers, A, Raynard, M, Metge, C, Kreindler, SA, Charette, CJ, Lemaire, JA, Synyshyn, M (2014). Effectiveness of internet-based interventions for children, youth, and young adults with anxiety and/or depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Services Research 14, 313.
Zimet, GD, Dahlem, NW, Zimet, SG, Farley, GK (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment 52, 3041.
Zimmerman, C, Kiss, L, Hossain, M (2011). Migration and health: a framework for 21st century policy-making. PLoS Medicine 8, e1001034.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed