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The Underground Structure of Eastern England

  • R. H. Rastall


The foregoing sketch brings out marked resemblances in the geological features of eastern and southern England on the one hand, and the neighbouring parts of the continent on the other. In both areas we find an old plateau of pre-Devonian rocks, against which Devonian and Carboniferous rocks are violently thrust from the south by Armorican and Variscan folds, giving rise to highly complex coal-basins in Belgium, France and Somerset, a type of structure possibly to be encountered in the future in Kent. In Belgium this plateau sinks to the north-east under the Campine coalfield, while in England its north-west margin is complicated by the incidence of posthumous folds of Charnian strike.

In eastern England, east of the Charnwood line, there is evidence for the existence of Professor Kendall's Willoughby axis, with north-west strike; between this and the Charnwood line there are indications of similar parallel buried trend-lines in the folding and faulting of the visible Yorks-Derby-Notts coalfield, and also, as suggested by Professor Fearnsides, in the general shape of this basin.

Further to the north, however, the general line of the Cleveland and Market Weighton axes is not Charnian, being about west 5° north. The Market Weighton axis, which is of Charnian type, with many repeated movements, does not form the boundary of the coalfield; this is in fact constituted by the southern flank of the broad Cleveland uplift, which is of Wealden type; an anticline superposed on an earlier sinking area.



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page 10 note 1 On the Tectonics of the Southern Midlands”: Geol. Mag., Vol. LXII, 1925, pp. 193222.

page 11 note 1 Lamplugh, G. W., Proc. Yorks Geol. Soc., vol. xx, 19231924, p. 1, with bibliography.

page 12 note 1 For a classification of the fold-systems and resulting structures see Stainier, , Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. li, 1916, pp. 101–4 and p. 122.

page 13 note 1 This usage in point of fact has the right of priority.

page 13 note 2 van Waterschoot, W. A. J. M., van der Gracht, , “Proeve eener Tektonische Schetskaart van het Belgisch-Nederlandsch-Westfaalsche Koleoveld en het aangrenzende noordelijke Gebied tot aan de breedte van Amsterdam”: Jaarverslag der Rijksopsporing van Delfstoffen over 1913, Amsterdam, 1913.

page 14 note 1 The smallest depths recorded are – 527 feet at Culford, and – 150 feet at Calvert.

page 15 note 1 Staples, Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. lii, 19161917, pp. 187–97. The writer does not agree with this author's interpretation of the relations of the Malvern and Woolhope axes to the Gloucester and Somerset Coalfield, but this question cannot he discussed here.

page 16 note 1 The Building of the British Isles, 3rd ed., 1911, fig. 29. pp. 186–7.

page 17 note 1 Handb. d. regionalen Geol., Bd. iii, i, p. 240 (table). vol. LXIV.—NO. I.

page 18 note 1 Rep. Coal Commission, 1905, pt. ix, p. 30.

page 18 note 2 Handb. d. req. Geol., p. 240.

page 18 note 3 “The Concealed Coalfield of Yorks and Notts”: Mem. Geol. Surv., 2nd. ed., 1926, p. 84.

page 19 note 1 Ibid., p. 101.

page 19 note 2 Ibid., p. 115.

page 19 note 3 Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc., vol. xx, 1925, pp. 215–25.

page 20 note 1 Cox, , Phil. Trans., A., vol. 219, 1919, App., p. 73. with references, and Cox, and Trueman, , Geol. Mag., Vol. LVII, 1920, p. 198.

page 21 note 1 Fearnsides, W. G., Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. li, 1916, pp. 409–48.

page 22 note 1 H., Stille, “Die kimmerische (vorcretasiche) Phase der saxonischen Faltung des deutschen Bodens”: Geol. Rundschau, vol. iv, 1913, pp. 362–83, with a very good bibliography.

page 24 note 1 The translation of the last sentence is admittedly very free, but it is believed to express the author's meaning to English readers better than a more literal rendering could do.

The Underground Structure of Eastern England

  • R. H. Rastall


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