Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex and associated rocks, west Norwegian Caledonides: geology, geochemistry and tectonic environment

  • H. Furnes (a1), K. P. Skjerlie (a1), R. B. Pedersen (a1), T. B. Andersen (a2), C J. Stillman (a3), R. J. Suthren (a4), M. Tysseland (a1) and L. B. Garmann (a1)...


Metabasalts of the Upper Ordovician Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex of the westernmost Norwegian Caledonides, show N-to E-MORB affinity, with high Th/Ta (or Nb) ratios giving evidence of subduction influence. The Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex is overlain by a heterogeneous assemblage of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, the Stavenes Group, of which the Heggøy Formation of metasandstones and phyllites conformably overlies the metabasalts of the Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex. The Heggøy Formation contains, in places, abundant metabasalt pillow lavas and minor intrusions, geochemically similar to those of the Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex, and basic metavolcaniclastites of island arc tholeiite (IAT) composition. This indicates that the Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex and Heggøy Formation developed in a marginal basin between a continental margin and an active subduction system, for which the present-day Andaman Sea may provide a realistic model. The other magmatic rocks of the Stavenes Group, showing both calc-alkaline and alkaline affinities, are less well time-constrained, but they are thought to represent an advanced stage of the island arc development, and ocean island build-up, respectively.



Hide All
Andersen, T. B., Skjerlie, K. P. & Furnes, H. 1990. The Sunnfjord Melange, evidence of Silurian ophiolite accretion in the west Norwegian Caledonides. Journal of the Geological Society of London 147, 5968.
Ballard, R. D. & Moore, J. G. 1977. Photographic Atlas of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rift Valley. New York: Springer. 114 pp.
Boyle, J. F. Geological implications of mixed oceanic-metalliferous and continental sediments from the Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex, West Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift (in press).
Brekke, H. & Solberg, P. O. 1987. The geology of Atløy, Sunnfjord, western Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Bulletin 410, 7394.
Brunfelt, A. O. & Steinnes, E. 1969. Instrumental activation analyses of silicate rocks with epithermal neutrons. Analytica Chimica Acta 48, 1324.
Brunfelt, A. O. & Steinnes, E. 1971. A neutron activation scheme developed for the determination of 42 elements in Lunar material. Talanta 18, 1197–208.
Bryhni, I. & Lyse, K. 1985. The Kalvåg Mélange, Norwegian Caledonides. In The Caledonide Orogen–Scandinavia and Related Areas (eds Gee, D. G. and Sturt, B. A.), pp. 417–26. New York: Wiley.
Cann, J. R. 1970. Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in some ocean floor basaltic rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 10, 711.
Coish, R. A. 1977. Ocean floor metamorphism in the Betts Cove Ophiolite, Newfoundland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 60, 255–70.
Coleman, R. G. 1977. Ophiolites. Berlin: Springer. 229 pp.
Curray, J. R., Moore, D. G., Lawver, L. A., Emmel, F. J., Raitt, R. W., Henry, M. & Kieckhefer, R. 1979. Tectonics of the Andaman Sea and Burma. In Geological and Geophysical Investigations of Continental Margins (eds Watkins, J., Montadert, L. and Dicker-son, P.), pp. 189–98. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 29.
Curray, J. R., Emmel, F. J., Moore, D. G. & Raitt, R. W. 1982. Structure, tectonics, and geological history of the northeastern Indian Ocean. In The Ocean Basins and Margins, Volume 6, The Indian Ocean (eds Nairn, A. E. M. and Stehli, F. G.), pp. 339450. New York: Plenum Press.
Dungan, M. A., Vance, J. A. & Blanchard, D. P. 1983. Geochemistry of the Shuksan greenschists and blueschists, North Cascades, Washington: variably fractionated and altered metabasalts of oceanic affinity. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 153–69.
Dunning, G. R. & Pedersen, R. B. 1988. U/Pb ages of ophiolites and arc-related plutons of the Norwegian Caledonides: implications for the development of Iapetus. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 98, 1323.
Flanagan, F.J. 1973. 1972 values for international geological reference standards. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 1189–200.
Furnes, H. 1972. Meta-hyaloclastite breccias associated with Ordovician pillow lavas in the Solund area, west Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 52, 385407.
Furnes, H. 1973. Variolitic structures in Ordovician pillow lava and its possible significance as an environmental indicator. Geology 1, 2730.
Furnes, H. 1974. Structural and metamorphic history of the Lower Palaeozoic metavolcanics and associated sediments in the Solund area, Sogn. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Bulletin 302, 3374.
Furnes, H., Pedersen, R. B., Cann, J. R., Boyle, J. F., Stillman, C.J. & Suthren, R.J. 1986. Solund–Stavfjorden ofiolittkompleks og overliggende sedimenter-vulkanitter: implikasjoner og tektonisk mijø. 17 e Nordiska Geologmotet 1986, Helsingfors (Abstract), 42.
Furnes, H., Pedersen, R. B., Sundvoll, B., Tysseland, M. & Tumyr, O. 1989. The age, petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the late Caledonian Gåsøy Intrusion, west Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift (in press).
Furnes, H. & Skjerlie, F.J. 1972. The significance of primary structures in the Ordovician pillow lava sequence of Western Norway in an understanding of major fold pattern. Geological Magazine 109, 315–22.
Furnes, H., Skjerlie, F.J. & Tysseland, M. 1976. Plate tectonic model based on greenstone geochemistry in the Late Precambrian-Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Solund–Stavfjorden area, West Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 56, 161–86.
Gale, G. H. 1975. Ocean floor-type basalts from the Grimeli Formation, Stavenes Group, Sunnfjord. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse 319, 4758.
Grenne, T. & Roberts, D. 1983. Volcanostratigraphy and eruptive products of the Jonsvatn greenstone formation, central Norwegian Caledonides. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse 387, 2138.
Hart, R. A. 1970. Chemical exchange between sea water and deep ocean basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 9, 269–79.
Hart, S. R., Erlank, A. J. & Kable, E. J. D. 1974. Sea floor basalt alteration: some chemical and Sr-isotopic effects. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 44, 219–30.
Haskin, L. A., Haskin, M. A., Frey, F. A. & Wildeman, T. R. 1968. Relative and absolute abundances of the rare earths. In Origin and Distribution of the Elements (ed. Ahrens, L. H.), pp. 889912. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Hla, Maung. 1987. Transcurrent movements in the Burma–Andaman Sea region. Geology 15, 911–12.
Holm, P. E. 1985. The geochemical fingerprints of different tectonomagmatic environments using hygromagmatophile element abundances of tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites. Chemical Geology 51, 303–23.
Kolderup, N.-H. 1921. Der Mangeritsyenit und umgebende Gesteine zwischen Dalsfjord und Stavfjord in Søndfjord im westlichen Norwegen. Bergen Museum Årbok 1920–21, (5).
Kolderup, N.-H. 1928. Fjellbygningen i kyststrøket mellom Nordfjord og Sognefjord. Bergen Museum Årbok 1928, Naturvitenskapelige rekke Nr. 1.
Langmuir, C. H. & Bender, F. J. 1984. The geochemistry of oceanic basalts in the vicinity of transform faults: observations and implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 69, 107–27.
Ludden, J. N. & Thompson, G. 1979. An evaluation of the behaviour of the rare earth elements during the weathering of sea-floor basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 43, 8592.
Ludden, J., Gelinas, L. & Trudel, P. 1982. Archean metavolcanics from Rouyn-Noranda district, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Quebec. 2. Mobility of trace elements and petrogenetic constraints. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 19, 2276–87.
Milnes, A. G. & Koestler, A. G. 1985. Geological structure of Jotunheimen, southern Norway (Sognefjell-Valdres cross-section). In The Caledonide Orogen – Scandinavia and Related Areas (eds Gee, D. G. and Sturt, B. A.), pp. 457–74. New York: Wiley.
Mitchell-Thome, R. C. 1982. The geological settings and characteristics of the Atlantic islands. Acta Geologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, 395420.
Moores, J. G. 1965. Petrology of deep-sea basalt near Hawaii. American Journal of Science 263, 4053.
Moores, E. M. 1982. Origin and emplacement of ophiolites. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 20, 735–60.
Padfield, T. & Gray, A. 1971. Major element rock analyses by X-ray fluorescence – a simple fusion method. N. V. Phillips analytical equipment FS35, Eindhoven.
Pearce, J. A. 1980. Geochemical evidence for the genesis and eruptive setting of lavas from Tethyan ophiolites. Proceedings of the International Ophiolite Symposium, Nicosia 1979, 261–72.
Pedersen, R. B. 1986. The nature and significance of magma chamber margins in ophiolites: examples from the Norwegian Caledonides. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 77, 100–12.
Pedersen, R. B., Furnes, H. & Dunning, G. 1988. Some Norwegian ophiolite complexes reconsidered. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Special Publications 3, 8085.
Pedersen, R. B. & Hertogen, J. Magmatic evolution of the Karmöy Ophiolite Complex, SW Norway – Relationships between MORB-IAT-boninitic-calc-al-kaline and alkaline magmatism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology (in press).
Ray, K. K., Sengupta, S. & Van Den Hul, H. J. 1988. Chemical characters of volcanic rocks from Andaman ophiolite, India. Journal of the Geological Society of London 145, 393400.
Reusch, H. 1903. Forsteininger i fjeldet på Frøyen. Naturen 1, 160.
Saunders, A. D. 1983. Geochemistry of basalts recovered from the Gulf of California during Leg 65 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 65 (eds Lewis, B. T. R., Robinson, P. et al. ), pp. 591621. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Saunders, A. D., Fornari, D. J., Joron, J-L., Tarney, J. & Treuil, M. 1982. Geochemistry of basic igneous rocks, Gulf of California, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 64. In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 64 (eds Curray, J. R., Moore, D. G. et al. ), pp. 595642. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office).
Skjerlie, F.J. 1969. The pre-Devonian rocks in the Askvoll – Gaular area and adjacent districts, western Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Bulletin 258, 325–59.
Skjerlie, F. J. 1974. The Lower Palaeozoic sequence of the Stavfjord district, Sunnfjord. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Bulletin 302, 132.
Skjerlie, K. P., Furnes, H. & Johansen, R.J. 1989. Magmatic development and tectonomagmatic models for the Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex, West Norwegian Caledonides. Lithos 23, 137–51.
Staudigel, H. & Hart, S. R. 1983. Alteration of basaltic glass: mechanism and significance for the oceanic crust-seawater budget. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47, 3750.
Skjerlie, K. P. & Furnes, H. in press. Evidence for a fossil transform fault in the Solund–Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex, west Norwegian Caledonides. Tectonics.
Tarney, J., Wood, D. A., Saunders, A. D., Cann, J. R. & Varet, J. 1980. Nature of mantle heterogeneity in the North Atlantic: evidence from deep sea drilling. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 297, 179202.
Thompson, R. N., Morrison, M. A., Hendry, G. L. & Parry, S. J. 1984. An assessment of the relative roles of crust and mantle in magma genesis: an elemental approach. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 310, 549–90.
Volpe, A. M., MacDougall, D. & Hawkins, J. W. 1988. Lau Basin basalts (LBB): trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence for heterogeneity in backarc basin mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 90, 174–86.
Wood, D. A., Joron, J-L. & Treuil, M. 1979. A reappraisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 45, 326–36.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed