Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A historical account of how continental drift and plate tectonics provided the framework for our current understanding of palaeogeography

  • G. MEINHOLD (a1) (a2) and A. M. CELÂL ŞENGÖR (a3)

Abstract

Palaeogeography is the cartographic representation of the past distribution of geographic features such as deep oceans, shallow seas, lowlands, rivers, lakes and mountain belts on palinspastically restored plate tectonic base maps. It is closely connected with plate tectonics which grew from an earlier theory of continental drift and is largely responsible for creating and structuring the Earth's lithosphere. Today, palaeogeography is an integral part of the Earth sciences curriculum. Commonly, with some exceptions, only the most recent state of research is presented; the historical aspects of how we actually came to the insights which we take for granted are rarely discussed, if at all. It is remarkable how much was already known about the changing face of the Earth more than three centuries before the theory of plate tectonics, despite the fact that most of our present analytical tools or our models were unavailable then. Here, we aim to present a general conspectus from the dawn of ‘palaeogeography’ in the 16th century onwards. Special emphasis is given to innovative ideas and scientific milestones, supplemented by memorable anecdotes, which helped to advance the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics, and finally led to the establishment of palaeogeography as a recognized discipline of the Earth sciences.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: g.meinhold@keele.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Ampferer, O. 1925. Über Kontinentverschiebungen. Naturwissenschaften 13, 669–75.
Ampferer, O. 1941. Gedanken über das Bewegungsbild des atlantischen Raumes. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 150, 1935.
Andrée, K. 1917. Alfred Wegeners Hypothese von der Horizontalverschiebung der Kontinentalschollen und das Permanenzproblem im Lichte der Paläogeographie und dynamischen Geologie. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 63, 50–3 and 77–81.
Argand, E. 1924. La tectonique de l'Asie. Extrait du Compte-rendu du XIIIe Congrès Géologique International 1922 (Liége: Imprimerie Vaillant-Carmanne) 1, 171372.
Arldt, T. 1907. Die Entwicklung der Kontinente und ihrer Lebewelt. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Erdgeschichte. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, XVII+[I]+729 pp.
Arldt, T. 1912. Paläogeographische Fragen. Geologische Rundschau 3, 93111.
Arldt, T. 1914. Zur Geschichte der paläogeographischen Rekonstruktionen. Geographische Zeitschrift 20, 197208.
Arldt, T. 1917−1922. Handbuch der Palaeogeographie. Volume I (Palaeaktologie) and Volume II (Palaeogeographie), Leipzig: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1647 pp.
Arldt, T. 1938. Die Entwicklung der Kontinente und ihrer Lebewelt. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Erdgeschichte, 2nd edition. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, XVIII+1005 pp.
Baatsen, M., van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., von der Heydt, A. S., Dijkstra, H. A., Sluijs, A., Abels, H. A. & Bijl, P. K. 2016. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic. Climate of the Past 12, 1635–44.
Baker, V. R. 1998. Catastrophism and uniformitarianism: logical roots and current relevance in geology. In Lyell: The Past is the Key to the Present (eds Blundell, D. J. & Scott, A. C.), pp. 171–82. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 143.
Beudant, F.-S. 1841. Cours élémentaire d'histoire naturelle. Géologie. In Cours élémentaire d'histoire naturelle. A l'usage des colléges et des maisons d'education, rédigé conformément au programme de l'Université du 14 septembre 1840 (eds Beudant, F.-S., Milne-Edwards, H. & de Jussieu, A.), pp. 1320. Paris: Langlois et Leclercq, and Paris: Fortin, Masson et Cie.
Beuerlen, K. 1968. Die Problematik paläogeographischer Rekonstruktion. Geologische Rundschau 58, 713–34.
Bird, J. M. & Dewey, J. F. 1970. Lithosphere plate-continental margin tectonics and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81, 1031–60.
Blakey, R. 2008. Gondwana paleogeography from assembly to breakup – a 500 m.y. odyssey. In Resolving the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in Time and Space (eds Fielding, C., Frank, T. & Isbell, J.), pp. 128. Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 441.
Boué, A. 1875. Einiges zur palaeo-geologischen Geographie. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe 71, 305425.
Bradley, D. C. 2011. Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinental cycle. Earth-Science Reviews 108, 1633.
Broad, W. J. 1997. The Universe Below: Discovering the Secrets of the Deep Sea. New York: Simon & Schuster, 432 pp.
Buckland, W. 1823. Reliquiae Diluvianae; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel, and on other Geological Phenomena, Attesting the Action of an Universal Deluge. London: John Murray, 303 pp.
Bullard, E. 1969. The origin of the oceans. Scientific American 221, 3, 6675.
Bullard, E. 1975. The emergence of plate tectonics: a personal view. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 3, 130.
Bullard, E., Everett, J. E. & Smith, A. G. 1965. The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 258, 4151.
Burke, K. & Dewey, J. F. 1973. Plume-generated triple junctions. EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 54, 239.
Burke, K., Dewey, J. F. & Kidd, W. S. F. 1976. Dominance of horizontal movements, arc and microcontinental collisions during the later permobile regime. In The Early History of the Earth (ed. Windley, B. F.), pp. 113–29. London and New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Cande, S. C., LaBrecque, J. L., Larson, R. L., Pittman, W. C. III, Golovchenko, X. & Haxby, W. F. 1989. Magnetic Lineations of the World's Ocean Basins. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Canu, F. 1895. Essai de paléogéographie. Restauration des contours des Mers anciennes en France et dans les pays voisins. Paris: Imprimerie A. Verger & E. Baret, 69 pp.
Carey, S. W. 1955. The orocline concept in geotectonics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 89, 255–88.
Carey, S. W. 1958. A tectonic approach to continental drift. In Continental Drift: A Symposium (ed. Carey, S. W.), pp. 177355. Hobart: University of Tasmania Press.
Carozzi, A. 1969. A propos de l'origine de la théorie des dérives continentales: Francis Bacon (1620), François Placet (1668), A. von Humboldt (1801) et A. Snider (1858). Compte rendu des séances de la Société de physique et d'histoire naturelle de Genève, nouvelle série 4, 171−9.
Carozzi, A. 1970. New historical data on the origin of the theory of continental drift. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81, 283–86.
Cawood, P. A., Kröner, A. & Pisarevsky, S. 2006. Precambrian plate tectonics: Criteria and evidence. GSA Today 16, 7, 411.
Choubert, B. 1935. Recherches sur la genèse des chaînes paléozoîques et antécambriennes. Revue de Géographie Physique et de Géologie Dynamique 8, 550.
Choubert, B. 1981. Aperçu de l’évolution des idées concernant la formation de la croûte terrestre d'Alfred Wegener à nos jours. Geologische Rundschau 70, 40–9.
Condie, K. C. 2016. A planet in transition: The onset of plate tectonics on Earth between 3 and 2 Ga? Geoscience Frontiers, published online 22 September 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2016.09.001.
Condie, K. C. & Pease, V. (eds) 2008. When Did Plate Tectonics Begin on Planet Earth? Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 440, 294 pp.
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds) 1992. Atlas of Palaogeography and Lithofacies. Geological Society of London, Memoir no. 13, 153 pp.
Cox, A. 1973. Plate Tectonics and Geomagnetic Reversals. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co. Ltd, 702 pp.
Cox, A. & Hart, R. B. 1986. Plate Tectonics: How it Works. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 382 pp.
Creer, K. M. & Irving, E. 2012. Testing continental drift: constructing the first palaeomagnetic path of polar wander (1954). Earth Sciences History 31, 111–45.
Cuvier, G. 1825. Discours sur les révolutions de la surface du globe et sur les changements qu'elles ont produits dans le règne animal. Paris: G. Dufour et Éd. d'Ocagne, 400 pp.
Dacqué, E. 1913. Paläogeographische Karten und die gegen sie zu erhebenden Einwände. Geologische Rundschau 4, 186206.
Dacqué, E. 1915. Grundlagen und Methoden der Paläogeographie. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 526 pp.
Dacqué, E. 1919. Geographie der Vorwelt (Paläogeographie). Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 104 pp.
Dacqué, E. 1926. Paläogeographie. Leipzig und Wien: Franz Deuticke, VIII+196 pp.
Daly, R. A. 1926. Our Mobile Earth. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 342 pp.
Dana, J. D. 1863. Manual of Geology: Treating of the Principles of the Science with Special Reference to American Geological History, for the use of Colleges, Academies and Schools of Science. Philadelphia: Theodore Bliss, 798 pp.
Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray, 502 pp.
Davies, G. L. 1965. Francis Bacon and continental drift. Geological Magazine 102, 347.
Davies, G. F. 1992. On the emergence of plate tectonics. Geology 20, 963–6.
de Beaumont, E. L. 1833. Observations sur l’étendue du système tertiaire inférieur dans le nord de la France et sur les dépôts de lignite quis'y trouvent. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, 1ère série, tome I, mémoire 5, 15 pp.
de Lamanon, J. H. de, R. 1782. De divers fossiles trouvés dans les carrières de Montmartre près Paris, et vues générales sur la formation des pierres gypseuses. Observations et mémoires sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts et métiers 19, 173–94.
de Lapparent, A. 1900. Traité de Géologie, 4th edition. Paris: Masson et Cie.
Dercourt, J., Gaetani, M., Vrielynck, B., Barrier, E., Biju-Duval, B., Brunet, M. F., Cadet, J. P., Crasquin, S. & Sandulescu, M. 2000. Atlas Peri-Tethys, Palaogeographical Maps. Paris: Commision de la Carte Géologique du Monde, 1137 pp.
de Saussure, H. B. 1779. Voyages dans les Alpes, précédés d'un essai sur l'histoire naturelle des environs de Geneve. Neuchatel: Tome Premier, Chez Samuel Fauche, 540 pp.
de Vita, S. & Martin, F. F. 2017. The palaeogeographic setting and the local environmental impact of the 130 ka Falconiera tuff-cone eruption (Ustica island, Italy). Annals of Geophysics 60 (2), S0224, doi: 10.4401/ag-7113.
Dewey, J. F. 1969a. The evolution of the Appalachian/Caledonian orogen. Nature 222, 124–9.
Dewey, J. F. 1969b. Continental margins: A model for conversion of Atlantic type to Andean type. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 6, 189–97.
Dewey, J. F. 1975. Finite plate implications: some implications for the evolution of rock masses at plate margins. American Journal of Science 275–A, 260–84.
Dewey, J. F. 1988. Lithospheric stress, deformation, and tectonic cycles: the disruption of Pangaea and the closure of Tethys. In Gondwana and Tethys (eds Aufley-Charles, M. G. & Hallam, A.), pp. 23‒40. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 37.
Dewey, J. F. 2015. A harbinger of plate tectonics: a commentary on Bullard, Everett and Smith (1965) ‘The fit of the continents around the Atlantic’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences 373, 20140227, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0227.
Dewey, J. & Bird, J. 1970a. Plate tectonics and geosynclines. Tectonophysics 10, 625‒38.
Dewey, J. F. & Bird, J. M. 1970b. Mountain belts and the new global tectonics. Journal of Geophysical Research 75, 2625–47.
Dewey, J. F. & Bird, J. M. 1971. Origin and emplacement of the ophiolite suite: Appalachian ophiolites in Newfoundland. Journal of Geophysical Research 76, 3179–206.
De Wit, M. & Ashwal, L. D. (eds) 1997. Greenstone Belts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 809 pp. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics no. 35.
Dickinson, W. R. 1971a. Plate tectonic models for orogeny at continental margins. Nature 232, 41‒2.
Dickinson, W. R. 1971b. Plate tectonics in geologic history. Science 174, 107‒13.
Dietz, R. S. 1961. Continent and ocean basin evolution by spreading of the sea floor. Nature 190, 854‒7.
du Toit, A. L. 1927. A Geological Comparison of South America with South Africa. Publication of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 381, 1‒158.
du Toit, A. L. 1937. Our Wandering Continents: An Hypothesis of Continental Drifting. London: Oliver and Boyd, 366 pp.
du Toit, A. L. 1952. Comparação Geológica entre a América do Sul e a África do Sul. Serviço Gråfico do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro, XII+179 pp., 11 plates, 1 foldout map.
Ernst, W. G. 2017. Kimberlites and the start of plate tectonics: Comment. Geology 45, 1, e405.
Ernst, W. G., Sleep, N. H. & Tsujimori, T. 2016. Plate-tectonic evolution of the Earth: bottom-up and top-down mantle circulation. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 53, 1103‒20.
Etheridge, R. 1881. Anniversary address of the president: On the analysis and distribution of the British Palaeozoic fossils. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London 37, 37‒235.
Feng, Z. Z. 2016. On palaeogeographic map. Journal of Palaeogeography 5, 1‒27.
Forbes, E. 1846. On the connection between the distribution of the existing fauna and flora of the British Isles, and the geological changes which have affected their area, especially during the epoch of the northern drift. Great Britain Geological Survey, Memoir 1, 336‒432.
Forsyth, D. & Uyeda, S. 1975. On the relative importance of the driving forces of plate motion. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 43, 163‒200.
Freshfield, D. W. 1920. The life of Horace Bénédict de Saussure. London: Edward Arnold, 479 pp.
Golonka, J. 2000. Cambrian-Neogene Plate Tectonic Maps. Kraków: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Jagielloñskiego, 125 pp.
Grabau, A. W. 1909. Physical and faunal evolution of North America during the Ordovicic, Siluric, and Early Devonic time. Journal of Geology 17, 209‒52.
Grabau, A. W. 1912. Über die Einteilung des nordamerikanischen Silurs. Compte rendu de la XIe session du Congrès géologique international (Stockholm 1910). Deuxième Fascicule, pp. 979‒95. Stockholm: Kungl. Boktryckeriet P. A. Norstedt & Söner.
Grabau, A. W. 1913. Principles of Stratigraphy. New York: A. G. Seiler and Company, 1185 pp.
Haber, F. 1927. Das Gold im Meerwasser. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie 40, 303‒17.
Hallam, A. (ed.) 1973a. Atlas of Palaeobiogeography. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 531 pp.
Hallam, A. 1973b. A Revolution in Earth Sciences: From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 127 pp.
Hamilton, W. 1969. Mesozoic California and the underflow of Pacific mantle. Geological Society of America Bulletin 80, 2409–30.
Hamilton, W. 1970. The Uralides and the motion of the Russian and Siberian platforms. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81, 2553–76.
Harrison, M. T., Blıchert-Toft, J., Müller, W., Albarede, F., Holden, P. & Mojzsis, S. J. 2005. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 Ga. Science 310, 1947–50.
Hastie, A. R., Fitton, J. G., Bromiley, G. D., Butler, I. B. & Odling, N. W. A. 2016. The origin of Earth's first continents and the onset of plate tectonics. Geology 44, 855–8.
Heezen, B. C. & Tharp, M. 1965. Tectonic fabric of the Atlantic and Indian oceans and continental drift. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 258, 90106.
Heezen, B. C., Tharp, M. & Ewing, M. (eds) 1959. The Floor of the Oceans. I. The North Atlantic. Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 65, 122 pp.
Hess, H. H. 1962. History of ocean basins. In Petrologic Studies: A Volume in Honor of A. F. Buddington (eds Engel, A. E. J., James, H. L. & Leonard, B. F.), pp. 599620. New York: Geological Society of America.
Holmes, A. 1913. The Age of the Earth. London and New York: Harper & Brothers, 196 pp.
Holmes, A. 1928. Radioactivity and continental drift. Geological Magazine 65, 236–38.
Holmes, A. 1931. Radioactivity and Earth movements. Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow for 1928–29 18, 559606.
Holmes, A. 1944. Principles of Physical Geology. London, Edinburgh, Paris, Melbourne, Toronto, New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 532 pp.
Holmes, A. 1946. An estimate of the age of the Earth. Nature 157, 680–4.
Horvitz, L. A. 2002. Eureka! Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 256 pp.
Hughes, N. F. (ed.) 1973. Organisms and continents through time: a symposium. Special Papers in Palaeontology 12. London: Palaeontological Association, 334 pp.
Hunt, T. S. 1873. The Paleogeography of the North-American Continent. Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 4, 416–31.
Hutton, J. 1788. Theory of the Earth; or an investigation of the laws observable in the composition, dissolution, and restoration of land upon the Globe. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1/2, 209304.
Irving, E. 1977. Drift of the major continental blocks since the Devonian. Nature 270, 304–9.
Irving, E. 1988. The paleomagnetic confirmation of continental drift. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 69, 9941014.
Isacks, B., Oliver, J. & Sykes, L. R. 1968. Seismology and the new global tectonics. Journal of Geophysical Research 73, 5855–99.
Jaworski, E. 1922. Die A. Wegener'sche Hypothese der Kontinentalverschiebungen: Eine kritische Zusammenstellung. Geologische Rundschau 13, 273–96.
Joleaud, L. 1939. Atlas de Paléobiogéographie. Paris: Paul Lechevalier, 39 pp. (+99 plates).
Kerner-Marilaun, F. 1934. Paläogeographie mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Fehlerquellen. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 410 pp.
Kious, W. J. & Tilling, R. I. 1996. This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. Washington, DC: United States Geological Survey, 56 pp.
Koken, E. 1893. Die Vorwelt und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte. Leipzig: T. O. Weigel, 672 pp.
Köppen, W. 1940. Die Klimate der geologischen Vorzeit: Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 38 pp.
Köppen, W. & Wegener, A. 1924. Die Klimate der geologischen Vorzeit. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 255 pp.
Köppen, W. & Wegener, A. 2015. The Climates of the Geological Past/Die Klimate der geologischen Vorzeit. Reproduction of the original 1924 German edition and complete English translation (eds J. Thiede, K. Lochte & A. Dummermuth). Stuttgart: Borntraeger Scientific Publishers, 657 pp.
Korenaga, J. 2013. Initiation and evolution of plate tectonics on Earth: Theories and observations. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41, 117–51.
Kornprobst, J. 2017. Boris Choubert: The forgotten fit of the circum-Atlantic continents. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 349, 42–8.
Kossmat, F. 1908. Paläogeographie. Leipzig: De Gruyter Verlag, 136 pp.
Kossmat, F. 1921. Erörterungen zu A. Wegeners Theorie der Kontinentalverschiebungen. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1921, 103–10.
Kossmat, F. 1936. Paläogeographie und Tektonik. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 413 pp.
Laubscher, H. 1969. Mountain building. Tectonophysics 7, 551–63.
Le Pichon, X. 1968. Sea floor spreading and continental drift. Journal of Geophysical Research 73, 3661–97.
Le Pichon, X., Francheteau, J. & Bonnin, J. 1973. Plate Tectonics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 300 pp.
Letsch, D. 2017. A pioneer of Precambrian geology: Boris Choubert's fit of the continents across the Atlantic (1935) and his insights into the Proterozoic tectonic structure of the West African Craton and adjacent areas. Precambrian Research 294, 230–43.
Leviton, A. & Aldrich, M. 2012. Contributions of the Geological Survey of India, 1851–1890, to the concept of Gondwána-Land. Earth Sciences History 31, 247–69.
Levorsen, A. I. 1960. Paleogeologic Maps. San Francisco and London: W. H. Freeman and Co., 174 pp.
Lilienthal, T. C. 1756. Die gute Sache der in der heiligen Schrift alten und neuen Testaments enthaltenen Göttlichen Offenbarung, wider die Feinde derselben erwiesen und gerettet. Volume 7. Königsberg: Johann Heinrich Hartung, 588 pp.
Lyell, C. 1830−1833. Principles of Geology, being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to causes now in Operation. Volumes 1–3. London: John Murray.
Lyell, C. 1835. Principles of Geology, being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to causes now in Operation, 4th edition, Volume 1. London: John Murray.
Lyell, C. 1839. Nouveaux éléments de géologie. Paris: Pitois-Levrault, 648 pp.
Marcou, J. 1857‒1860. Lettres sur les roches du Jura et leur distribution géographique dans les deux hémisphères. Paris: Friedrich Klincksieck, 364 pp.
Markwick, P. J. & Valdes, P. J. 2004. Palaeo-digital elevation models for use as boundary conditions in coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM experiments: a Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous) example. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 213, 3763.
Marvin, U. B. 1973. Continental Drift. The Evolution of a Concept. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, 239 pp.
Mason, R. G. 1958. A magnetic survey off the west coast of the United States between latitudes 32° and 36°N, longitudes 121° and 128°W. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 1, 320–9.
Mason, R. G. & Raff, A. D. 1961. A magnetic survey off the west coast of North America, 32°N to 42°N. Geological Society of America Bulletin 72, 1259–65.
Matthew, W. D. 1906. Hypothetical outlines of the continents in Tertiary times. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22, 353–83.
Matthews, K. J., Maloney, K. T., Zahirovic, S., Williams, S. E., Seton, M. & Müller, R. D. 2016. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic. Global and Planetary Change 146, 226–50.
Maurer, H. & Stocks, T. 1933. Die Echolotungen des ‘Meteor’. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen atlantischen Expedition auf dem Forschungs- und Vermessungsschiff ‘Meteor’ 1925–1927 2, 1309.
Maury, M. F. 1855. The Physical Geography of the Sea. New York: Harper & Brothers, 310 pp.
McElhinny, M. W. 1973. Palaeomagnetism and Plate Tectonics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 358 pp.
McKenzie, D. & Parker, R. 1967. The North Pacific: An example of tectonics on a sphere. Nature 216, 1276–80.
McKenzie, D. & Sclater, J. G. 1971. The evolution of the Indian Ocean since the late Cretaceous. Geophysical Journal of Royal Astronomical Society 25, 437528.
McKerrow, W. & Scotese, C. R. (eds) 1990. Palaeozoic Palaogeography and Biogeography. Geological Society of London, Memoir no. 12, 435 pp.
McKerrow, W. S. & Ziegler, A. M. 1972. Palaeozoic Oceans. Nature 240, 92–4.
McQuarrie, N. & Wernicke, B. P. 2005. An animated tectonic reconstruction of southwestern North America since 36 Ma. Geosphere 1, 147–72.
Medlicott, H. B. & Blandford, W. T. 1879. A Manual of the Geology of India. 2 volumes. Calcutta: Geological Survey of India.
Mero, J. L. 1965. The Mineral Resources of the Sea. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 312 pp., Elsevier Oceanography Series no. 1.
Mitchell, A. H. & Reading, H. G. 1969. Continental margins, geosynclines, and ocean floor spreading. Journal of Geology 77, 629–46.
Molengraaf, G. A. F. 1916. The coral reef problem and isostasy. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen Amsterdam 19, 610–27.
Molengraaf, G. A. F. 1928. Wegener's continental drift. In Theory of Continental Drift: Symposium on the Origin and Movement of Land Masses both Inter-Continental and Intra-Continental, as Proposed by Alfred Wegener (eds van Waterschoot van der Gracht, W. A. J. M., Willis, B., Chamberlin, R. T., Joly, J., Molengraaff, G. A. F., Gregory, J. W., Wegener, A., Schuchert, C., Longwell, C. R., Taylor, F. B., Bowie, W., White, D., Singewald, J. T. Jr. & Berry, E. W.), pp. 90–2. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Special Publication.
Morgan, J. 1968. Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks. Journal of Geophysical Research 73, 1959–82.
Müller, R. D., Seton, M., Zahirovic, S., Williams, S. E., Matthews, K. J., Wright, N. M., Shephard, G. E., Maloney, K. T., Barnett-Moore, N., Hosseinpour, M., Bower, D. J. & Cannon, J. 2016. Ocean basin evolution and global-scale plate reorganization events since Pangea breakup. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 44, 107–38.
Murray, J. & Renard, A. F. 1891. Report on the deep-sea deposits based on the specimens collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1872 to 1876. Edinburgh: H.M. Stationery Office, 525 pp.
Nance, R. D., Murphy, J. B. & Santosh, M. 2014. The supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay. Gondwana Research 25, 429.
Neumayr, M. 1885. Die geographische Verbreitung der Juraformation. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, mathematisch-natwisseenschfatliche Classe 50, 57144.
Nölke, F. 1922. Physikalische Bedenken gegen A. Wegeners Hypothese der Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane. Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen 68, 114–5.
Oppenheim, V. 1967. Critique of hypothesis of continental drift. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 51, 1354–67.
Oreskes, N. 1999. The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 432 pp.
Ortelius, A. 1570. Typus orbis terrarum. Antwerpen: Officina Plantiniana.
Ortelius, A. 1596. Thesaurus Geographicus, recognitus et auctus. In quo omnium totius terræ regionum, montium, promontoriorum, collium, siluarum, desertorum, insularum, portuum, populorum, vrbium, opidorum, pagorum, fanorum, tribuum: Item oceani marium, fretorum, fluuiorum, torrentium, sinuum, fontium, lacuum, paludumqúe nomina & apellationes veteres; additis magna ex parte etiam recentioribus. Antwerp: Officina Plantiniana.
Osborne, C. P., Royer, D. L. & Beerling, D. J. 2004. Adaptive role of leaf habit in extinct polar forests. International Forestry Review 6, 181–6.
Owen, R. 1857. Key to the Geology of the Globe: An Essay, Designed to show that the Present Geographical, Hydrographical, and Geological Structures, Observed on the Earth's Crust, were the Result of Forces Acting According to Fixed, Demonstrable Laws, Analogous to those Governing the Development of Organic Bodies. Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 256 pp.
Penck, A. 1921. Wegeners Hypothese der kontinentalen Verschiebungen. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1921, 110–20.
Pitman, W. C. III & Heirtzler, J. R. 1966. Magnetic anomalies over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Science 154, 1164–71.
Playfair, J. 1802. Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth. London: Cadell and Davies. Edinburgh: William Creech, 528 pp.
Polat, A., Kerrich, R. & Windley, B. 2009. Archaean crustal growth processes in southern West Greenland and the southern Superior Province: geodynamic and magmatic constraints. In Earth Accretionary Systems in Space and Time (eds Cawood, P. & Kröner, A.), pp. 155–91. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 318.
Pomerol, C. 1980. Stratigraphie et Paléogéographie: Principes et Méthodes. Paris: Doin, 209 pp.
Romm, J. 1994. A new forerunner for continental drift. Nature 367, 407–8.
Ronov, A., Khain, V. & Balukhovsky, A. 1989. Atlas of Lithological-Paleogeographical Maps of the World: Mesozoic and Cenozoic of Continents and Oceans. Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, 79 pp.
Schuchert, C. 1910. Palaeogeography of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin 20, 427606.
Schuchert, C. 1911. Palaeogeographic and geologic significance of recent brachiopoda. Geological Society of America Bulletin 22, 258–75.
Schuchert, C. 1955. Atlas of Palaeogeographic Maps of North America. New York: Wiley, 177 pp.
Schweydar, W. 1921. Bemerkungen zu Wegeners Hypothese der Verschiebung der Kontinente. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1921, 120–5.
Schwinner, R. 1920. Vulkanismus und Gebirgsbildung. Ein Versuch. Zeitschrift für Vulkanologie 5, 175230.
Schwinner, R. 1941. Der Begriff der Konvektionsströmung in der Mechanik der Erde. Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik 58, 119–58.
Scotese, C. R. 1976. A continental drift ‘flip book’. Computers & Geosciences 2, 113–6.
Scotese, C. R. 2001. Atlas of Earth History. Volume 1, Paleogeography. Arlington, Texas: PALEOMAP Project, 52 pp.
Scotese, C. R. 2004. A continental drift flipbook. Journal of Geology 112, 729–41.
Scotese, C. R. 2016. Tutorial: PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas for GPlates and the PaleoData Plotter Program. Available at http://www.earthbyte.org/paleomap-paleoatlas-for-gplates/ (accessed 5 December 2017).
Scotese, C. R. & Schettino, A. 2017. Chapter 3: Late Permian-Early Jurassic Paleogeography of Western Tethys and the World. In Permo-Triassic Salt Provinces of Europe, North Africa and the Atlantic Margins (eds Soto, J. I., Flinch, J. & Tari, G.), pp. 5795. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Scupin, H. 1940. Palaeogeographie: Grundfragen und Forschung. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart, 164 pp.
Şengör, A. M. C. 2001. Is the Present the Key to the Past or the Past the Key to the Present? James Hutton and Adam Smith versus Abraham Gottlob Werner and Karl Marx in Interpreting History. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 355, x+51 pp.
Şengör, A. M. C. 2003. The large-wavelength deformations of the lithosphere: Materials for a history of the evolution of thought from the earliest times to plate tectonics. Geological Society of America, Memoir 196, xvii+347 pp.
Şengör, A. M. C. 2014a. Eduard Suess and global tectonics: an illustrated ‘short guide’: Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences (Suess special issue) 107, 682.
Şengör, A. M. C. 2014b. Pangäische Spiele 2012. Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark 143, 748.
Şengör, A. M. C. 2015. The founder of modern geology died 100 years ago: the scientific work and legacy of Eduard Suess. Geoscience Canada 42, 181246.
Şengör, A. M. C., Altıner, D., Cin, A., Ustaömer, T. & Hsü, K. J. 1988. Origin and assembly of the Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwana-Land. In Gondwana and Tethys (eds Aufley-Charles, M. G. & Hallam, A.), pp. 119–81. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 37.
Şengör, A. M. C. & Natal'in, B. A. 1996a. Palaeotectonics of Asia: Fragments of A Synthesis. In The Tectonic Evolution of Asia (Yin, A. & Harrison, M.), pp. 486–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Şengör, A. M. C. & Natal'in, B. A. 1996b. Turkic-Type orogeny and its role in the making of the continental crust. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 24, 263338.
Shephard, G. E., Matthews, K. J., Hosseini, K. & Domeier, M. 2017. On the consistency of seismically imaged lower mantle slabs. Scientific Reports 7, 10976, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11039-w.
Smith, A. G., Briden, J. C. & Drewry, G. E. 1973. Phanerozoic world maps. In Organisms and Continents Through Time (ed. Hughes, N. F.), pp. 142. Palaeontological Society, London, Special Papers in Palaeontology no. 12.
Smith, A. G. & Hallam, A. 1970. The fit of the southern continents. Nature 225, 139–44.
Smith, A. G., Hurley, A. M. & Briden, J. C. 1981. Phanerozoic Palaeocontinental World Maps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 102 pp.
Snider, A. 1859. La Création et ses mystères dévoilés. Paris: A. Franck and E. Dentu, 487 pp.
Soergel, W. 1916. Die atlantische “Spalte”. Kritische Bemerkungen zu A. Wegeners Theorie von der Kontinentalverschiebung. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 68, 200–39.
Stampfli, G. M. & Borel, G. D. 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 196, 1733.
Stampfli, G. M., Hochard, C., Vérard, C., Wilhem, C. & von Raumer, J. 2013. The formation of Pangea. Tectonophysics 593, 119.
Stern, R. J. 2005. Evidence from ophiolites, blueschists, and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terranes that the modern episode of subduction tectonics began in Neoproterozoic time. Geology 33, 557–60.
Stern, R. J., Leybourne, M. I. & Tsujimori, T. 2016. Kimberlites and the start of plate tectonics. Geology 44, 799802.
Stern, R. J., Leybourne, M. I. & Tsujimori, T. 2017. Kimberlites and the start of plate tectonics: Reply. Geology 45, 1, e406.
Stocks, T. & Wüst, G. 1935. Die Tiefenverhältnisse des offenen Atlantischen Ozeans. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Atlantischen Expedition auf dem Forschungs- und Vermessungsschiff ‘Meteor’ 1925–1927 3, 131.
Suess, E. 1883. Das Antlitz der Erde. Volume Ia. Prag–Wien: F. Tempsky and Leipzig: G. Freytag, 310 pp.
Suess, E. 1885. Das Antlitz der Erde. Volume Ib. Prag–Wien: F. Tempsky and Leipzig: G. Freytag, pp. 311778.
Suess, E. 1888. Das Antlitz der Erde. Volume II. Prag–Wien: F. Tempsky and Leipzig: G. Freytag, 703 pp.
Suess, E. 1893. Are great ocean depths permanent? Natural Science 2, 180–7.
Suess, E. 1901. Das Antlitz der Erde. Volume III/1 (Dritter Band. Erste Hälfte). Prag–Wien: F. Tempsky and Leipzig: G. Freytag, 508 pp.
Suess, E. 1909. Das Antlitz der Erde. Volume III/2 (Dritter Band. Zweite Hälfte. Schluss des Gesamtwerkes). Prag–Wien: F. Tempsky and Leipzig: G. Freytag, 789 pp.
Sykes, L. R. 1967. Mechanism of earthquakes and nature of faulting on the mid-oceanic ridges. Journal of Geophysical Research 72, 2131–53.
Tarling, D. H. & Runcorn, S. K. (eds) 1973. Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences. Volumes 1 and 2. London, New York: Academic Press, 1184 pp.
Termier, H. & Termier, G. 1960. Atlas de Paléogéographie. Paris: Masson & Cie, 99 pp.
Thenius, E. 1977. Meere und Länder im Wechsel der Zeiten: Die Paläogeographie als Grundlage für die Biogeographie. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 216 pp.
Thenius, E. 1988. Otto Ampferer, Begründer der Theorie der Ozeanbodenspreizung. Die Geowissenschaften 6, 4, 103–5.
Torsvik, T. H. 2009. BugPlates: Linking Biogeography and Palaeogeography. Trondheim/Norway: Centre for Geodynamics.
Torsvik, T. H. & Cocks, L. R. M. 2017. Earth History and Palaeogeography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 317 pp.
Torsvik, T. H., Steinberger, B., Gurnis, M. & Gaina, C. 2010. Plate tectonics and net lithosphere rotation over the past 150 My. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291, 106–12.
Toula, F. 1908. Das Wandern und Schwanken der Meere. Schriften des Vereines zur Verbreitung naturwissenschaftlicher Kenntnisse in Wien 48, 291349.
van der Voo, R. 1993. Paleomagnetism of the Atlantic, Tethys and Iapetus Oceans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 411 pp.
van der Voo, R. & French, R. B. 1974. Apparent polar wandering for the Atlantic-bordering continents: Late Carboniferous to Eocene. Earth-Science Reviews 10, 99119.
van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Kapp, P., Dupont-Nivet, G., Lippert, P. C., DeCelles, P. G. & Torsvik, T. H. 2011. Restoration of Cenozoic deformation in Asia, and the size of Greater India. Tectonics 30, TC5003, doi:10.1029/2011TC002908.
van Houten, F. B. 1975. A precocious Atlantic reconstruction: an historical note. Geology 3 (4), 194–5.
Varenius, B. 1650. Geographia Generalis in qua Affectiones Generales Telluris Explicantur. Amstelodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, 786 pp.
Vérard, C., Hochard, C., Baumgartner, P. O. & Stampfli, G. M. 2015. 3D palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Phanerozoic versus sea-level and Sr-ratio variations. Journal of Palaeogeography 4, 6484.
Vine, F. J. & Matthews, D. H. 1963. Magnetic anomalies over ocean ridges. Nature 199, 947–9.
von Humboldt, A. 1801. Alexander von Humboldt's neue physikalische Beobachtungen im spanischen Amerika. Annalen der Physik 7, 329–47.
von Humboldt, A. 1804. Geognostische Skizze von Südamerika. Annalen der Physik 16, 394449.
von Humboldt, A. 1845a. Kosmos: A General Survey of Physical Phenomena of the Universe. Volume 1. London: Hippolyte Baillière, 482 pp.
von Humboldt, A. 1845b. Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung. Volume 1. Stuttgart and Tübingen: J. G. Cotta'scher Verlag, 493 pp.
Wang, H. 1985. Atlas of the Palaeogeography of China. Beijing: Cartographic Publishing House, 143 pp. [maps and cross sections], 85 pp. [in Chinese], 28 pp. [in English].
Wegener, A. 1912a. Die Entstehung der Kontinente. Geologische Rundschau 3, 276–92.
Wegener, A. 1912b. Die Entstehung der Kontinente. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 58, 185–95, 253–6, 305–9.
Wegener, A. 1915. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, 1st edition. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 94 pp.
Wegener, A. 1920. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, 2nd edition. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 135 pp.
Wegener, A. 1922. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, 3rd edition. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 144 pp.
Wegener, A. 1929. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, 4th edition. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 231 pp.
Wegener, A. 1966. The Origin of Continents and Oceans. Translated by John Biram from the Fourth (1929) revised German edition. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 246 pp.
Williams, S., Müller, R. D., Landgrebe, T. C. W. & Whittaker, J. M. 2012. An open-source software environment for visualizing and refining plate tectonic reconstructions using high resolution geological and geophysical data sets. GSA Today 22 (4), 49.
Willis, B. 1909. Paleogeographic maps of North America. Journal of Geology 17, 203–8, 253–6, 286–8, 342–3, 403–9, 424–8, 503–8, 600–2.
Willis, B. 1910. Principles of Paleogeography. Science 31, 241–60.
Willis, B. 1944. Continental drift, ein Märchen. American Journal of Science 242, 509–13.
Wills, L. J. 1951. A Palaeogeographical Atlas of the British Isles and Adjacent Parts of Europe. London: Blackie & Son Ltd., 64 pp.
Wilson, J. T. 1963. A possible origin of the Hawaiian Islands. Canadian Journal of Physics 41, 863–70.
Wilson, J. T. 1965. A new class of faults and their bearing on continental drift. Nature 207, 343–7.
Wilson, J. T. 1966. Did the Atlantic close and then re-open? Nature 211, 676–81.
Wilson, J. T. (ed.) 1972. Continents adrift: Readings from “Scientific America”. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co Ltd., 172 pp.
Ziegler, P. A. 1982. Geological tlas of Western and Central Europe. The Hague: Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., 130 pp.
Ziegler, P. A. 1988. Evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic and the Western Tethys. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 43, 198 pp.
Ziegler, A. M., Scotese, C. R., McKerrow, W. S., Johnson, M. E. & Bambach, R. K. 1979. Paleozoic paleogeography. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 7, 473502.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed