Skip to main content Accessibility help

Geochemistry, age and origin of the Mons Claudianus TTG batholith (Egypt): insight into the role of Pan-African magmatism in uniting plates of Gondwana



The tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) Mons Claudianus Batholith (MCB) of Egypt is subsolvus, metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, exhibits wide ranges of SiO2, Al2O3, Sr, Rb, Zr, shows large Ba enrichment, is moderately enriched in rare earth elements (REE) and is depleted in K, Ti, Nb, Y, Hf and heavy REE (HREE), reflecting strong arc geochemical signatures. Moderate fractionation of REE and lack of Eu anomaly characterize the MCB. It is typical of high-Al TTGs of volcanic-arc affinities. U–Pb–zircon dating produced a Pan-African age of 664.12 ± 0.38 Ma. The MCB exhibits 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of 0.70352–0.70626 (initial Sr ratio of 0.70259) and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.51261–0.51276 (εNd; –0.5 to +2.4), suggestive of a mantle source. Anatexis of a basaltic slab under eclogitic conditions leaving garnet in the residue produces high-Al TTG rocks characterized by low Yb values (<1.8 ppm). Values (in ppm) of Yb (0.65–1.8), Y (2.2–19), Nb (1.2–6.4), and ratios of Nb/Ta (7–17), (La/Yb)N of 11.7, Sr/Y and Zr/Sm (58 and 45, respectively) are all consistent with anatexis of a basaltic slab under eclogitic conditions, leaving garnet in the residue to produce this high-Al TTG suite. The data conform to magma generation via partial melting (F = 0.25–0.50) leaving 15–25 % garnet in the residue. Voluminous synorogenic magmatic pulses, resulting from slab melting during the closure of the Mozambique Ocean via convergence of east and west Gondwana, produced the MCB and similar large batholiths forming the core of Pan-African belts. These belts welded together vestiges of fragmented Rodinia, assembling them into a united Gondwana.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence:


Hide All
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 1990. Petrogenesis of early-orogenic diorites, tonalities and post-orogenic trondhjemites in the Nubian Shield. Journal of Petrology 31, 1285–312.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 1995. Tectonic-magmatic stages of shield evolution: the Pan-African belt in northeastern Egypt. Tectonophysics 242, 223–40.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 1996. Pan African volcanism: petrology and geochemistry of the Dokhan Volcanic Suite in the northern Nubian shield. Geological Magazine 133, 1731.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 2006. Petrogenesis of anorogenic peralkaline granitic complexes from eastern Egypt. Mineralogical Magazine 70, 2750.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 2010. Nature of feldspars in felsic plutonic complexes from northeastern Egypt: implications for the evolution of orogenic and anorogenic magmas. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 257, 147–68.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 2016. Mineralogy of the Neoproterozoic epidote-bearing TTG suite, Mons Claudianus batholith (Egypt) and implications for synorogenic magmatism. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 1291–314.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. & El-Kibbi, M. M. 2001. Anorogenic magmatism: chemical evolution of the Mount El-Sibai A-type complex (Egypt), and implications for the origin of within-plate felsic magmas. Geological Magazine 138, 6785.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. & Martin, R. F. 1987. Late Pan-African magmatism and crustal development in northeastern Egypt. Geological Journal 22, 281301.
Abdel-Rahman, A. M. & Martin, R. F. 1990. The Mount Gharib A-type granite, Nubian shield: petrogenesis and role of metasomatism at the source. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 104, 173–83.
Abdel-Rahman, Y., Ploat, A., Dilek, Y., Fryer, B., El-Sharkawy, M. & Sakran, S. 2009. Geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic WadiGhadir ophiolite, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Lithos 113, 158–78.
Affaton, P. 1998. Geology of Western Gondwana (2000–500 Ma): Pan-African – Brasiliano Aggregation of South America and Africa. American Journal of Science 298, 611–15.
Ali, K. A., Azer, M. K., Gahlan, H. A., Wilde, S. A., Samuel, M. D. & Stern, R. J. 2010. Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoic ophiolites along the Allaqi–Heiani Suture, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Gondwana Research 18, 583–95.
Almeida, J. A. C., Dall'Agnol, R., Oliveira, M. A., Macambirab, M. J. B., Pimenteld, M. M., Rämöe, O. T., Guimarãesa, F. V. & Leite, A. A. S. 2011. Zircon geochronology, geochemistry and origin of the TTG suites of the Rio Maria granite-greenstone terrane: implications for the growth of the Archean crust of the Carajás province, Brazil. Precambrian Research 187, 201–21.
Almeida, J. A. C., Dall'Agnol, R. & Rocha, M. C. 2017. Tonalite–trondhjemite and leucogranodiorite–granite suites from the Rio Maria domain, Carajas Province, Brazil: implications for discrimination and origin of the Archean Na-granitoids. Canadian Mineralogist 55, 437–56.
Ashwal, L. D., Demaiffe, D. & Torsvik, T. H. 2002. Petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic granitoids and related rocks from the Seychelles: evidence for the case of an Andean-type arc origin. Journal of Petrology 43, 4583.
Atherton, M. P., McCourt, W. J., Sanderson, L. M. & Taylor, W. P. 1979. The geochemical character of the segmented Peruvian Coastal batholith and associated volcanics. In Origin of Granite Batholiths: Geochemical Evidence (eds Atherton, M. P. & Tarney, J.), pp. 4564. Nantwich: Shiva.
Barker, F. 1979. Trondhjemite: definition, environment and hypothesis of origin. In Trondhjemites, Dacites and Related Rocks (ed. Barker, F.), pp. 112. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Barker, F. & Arth, J. G. 1976. Generation of trondhjemitic-tonalitic liquids and Archean bimodal trondhjemite basalt suites. Geology 4, 596600.
Barker, F., Peterman, Z. E. & Friedman, L. 1976. The 1.7 to 1.8 b.y. old trondhjemites of southwestern Colorado and northern New Mexico: geochemistry and depths of genesis. Geological Society of America Bulletin 87, 189–98.
Barr, S. M., White, C. E. & Culshaw, N. G. 2001. Geology and tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic granitoid suite in the Island Harbour Bay area, Makkovick Province, Labrador. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38, 441–63.
Bédard, J. H. 2003. Evidence for regional-scale, pluton-driven, high-grade metamorphism in the Archean Minto Block, northern Superior Province, Canada. Journal of Geology 111, 183205.
Berhe, S. M. 1990. Ophiolites in Northeast and East Africa: implications for Proterozoic crustal growth. Journal of the Geological Society, London 147, 4157.
Blasband, B., White, S., Broijmans, P., De Boorder, H. & Visser, W. 2000. Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Journal of the Geological Society of London 157, 615–28.
Blundy, J. D. & Holland, T. J. B. 1990. Calcic amphibole equilibria and a new amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 104, 208–24.
Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J. & Vail, J. R. 1984. The Geochronology and Evolution of Africa. Oxford: Clarendon, 371 pp.
Coleman, R. G. & Peterman, Z. E. 1975. Oceanic plagiogranite. Journal of Geophysical Research 80, 1099–108.
Collins, A. S. & Pisarevsky, S. A. 2005. Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: the evolution of the circum-Indian orogens. Earth-Science Reviews 71, 229–70.
Condie, K. C. 2005. TTGs and adakites: are they both slab melts?. Lithos, 80, 3344.
Dahlquist, J. A. 2001. REE fractionation by accessory minerals in epidote-bearing metaluminous granitoids from the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. Mineralogical Magazine 65, 463–75.
Dalziel, I. W. D. 1991. Pacific margins of Laurentia and East Antarctica – Australia as a conjugate rift pair: evidence and implications for an Eocambrian supercontinent. Geology 19, 598601.
Dalziel, I. W. D. 1992. On the organisation of American plates in the Neoproterozoic and the breakout of Laurentia. GSA Today 2, 237–41.
Dalziel, I. W. D. 1997. Overview: Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: review, hypothesis, environmental speculation. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109, 1642.
Davidson, J. P. 1987. Crustal contamination versus subduction zone enrichment: examples from the Lesser Antilles and implications for the mantle source composition of island arc volcanic rocks. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51, 2185–98.
Defant, M. J. & Drummond, M. S. 1990. Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted. lithosphere. Nature 367, 662–5.
de Wall, H., Pandit, M. K., Dotzler, R. & Just, J. 2012. Cryogenian transpression and granite intrusion along the western margin of Rodinia (Mt. Abu region): magnetic fabric and geochemical inferences on Neoproterozoic geodynamics of the NW Indian block. Tectonophysics 554–557, 143–58.
Dissanayake, C. B. & Chandrajith, R. 1999. Sri Lanka – Madagascar Gandwana linkage: evidence for a Pan-African mineral belt. Journal of Geology 107, 223–35.
Drummond, M. S. & Defant, M. J. 1990. A model for trondhjemite–tonalite–dacite genesis and crustal growth via slab melting: Archaean to modern comparisons. Journal of Geophysical Research 95, 21503–21.
El-Bialy, M. Z. 2013. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments formation, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling and depositional tectonic setting. Lithos 175, 6885.
Eliwa, H. A., Kimura, J. I. & Itaya, T. 2006. Late Neoproterozoic Dokhan Volcanics, North Eastern Desert, Egypt: geochemistry and petrogenesis. Precambrian Research 151, 3152.
El-Ramly, M. F. 1972. A new geological map for the basement rocks in the Eastern and South-Western Desert of Egypt. Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt 2, 118.
El-Ramly, M. F. & Hussein, A. A. 1985. The ring complexes of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 3, 7782.
El-Shazly, S. M. & El-Sayed, M. M. 2000. Petrogenesis of the Pan-African El-Bula igneous suite, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 31, 317–36.
Evans, B. W. & Vance, J. A. 1987. Epidote phenocrysts in dacitic dikes, Boulder County, Colorado. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 96, 178–85.
Farrow, C. E. G. & Barr, S. M. 1992. Petrology of high-Al-hornblende and magmatic epidote-bearing plutons in the southeastern Cape Breton Highlands, Nova Scotia. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 377–92.
Faure, G. 1986. Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 589 pp.
Foley, S. F., Tiepolo, M. & Vannucci, R. 2002. Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones. Nature 417, 837–40.
Franz, G. & Smelik, E. A. 1995. Zoned zoisite from Weissenstein pegmatite that derived from high-pressure melting of eclogite at ≈ 2.0 GPa: importance for decompressional melting in Eclogite. European Journal of Mineralogy 7, 1421–36.
Frisch, W. & Abdel-Rahman, A. M. 1999. Petrogenesis of the Wadi Dib alkaline ring complex, Eastern Desert of Egypt. Mineralogy and Petrology 65, 249–75.
Green, T. H. & Ringwood, A. E. 1968. Genesis of the calc-alkaline igneous rock suite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 18, 105–62.
Halla, J., van Hunen, J., Heilimo, E. & Hölttä, P. 2009. Geochemical and numerical constraints on Neoarchean plate tectonics. Precambrian Research 179, 155–62.
Hammarstrom, J. M. & Zen, E.-A. 1986. Aluminum in hornblende: an empirical igneous geobarometer. American Mineralogist 71, 1297–313.
Handke, M. J., Tucker, R. D., & Ashwal, L. D. 1999. Neoproterozoic continental arc magmatism in west-central Madagascar. Geology 27, 351–4.
Hanson, R. E., Wilson, T. J. & Munyanyiwa, H. 1994. Geologic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Zambezi orogenic belt in Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 18, 135–50.
Hargrove, U., Martin, M. W., Hanson, R. E., Singletary, S., Bowring, S. & Munyanyiwa, H. 1998. Tectonic inversion of the Paleo- and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in the Zambezi belt, Mt. Darwin area, NE Zimbabwe. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 30, A–292.
Harris, N. B. W. 1985. Alkaline complexes from the Arabian Shield. Journal of African Earth Science 3, 83–8.
Haydoutov, I. & S. Yanev, S. 1997. The protomoesian microcontinent of the Balkans Peninsula – a peri Gondvanian piece. Tectonophysics 272, 303–13.
Hoffman, P. F. 1991. Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out? Science 252, 1409–12.
Hoffman, P. F. 1999. The break-up of Rodinia, birth of Gondwana, true polar wander and the snowball Earth. Journal of African Earth Sciences 28, 1733.
Hollister, L. S., Grissom, G. C., Peters, E. K., Stowell, H. H. & Sisson, V. B. 1987. Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calc-alkaline plutons. American Mineralogist 72, 231–9.
Hume, W. R. 1934. The Geology of Egypt, vol. 2: The Fundamental Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Egypt and the Sudan, their distribution, Age and Character. Part 1: The Metamorphic Rocks. Cairo: Government Press, 134 pp.
Jacobs, J., Fanning, C. M., Henjes-Kunst, F., Olesch, M. & Paech, H. J. 1998. Continuation of the Mozambique belt into East Antarctica: Grenville-age metamorphism and polyphase Pan-African high-grade events in Central Dronning Maud Land. Journal of Geology 106, 385406.
Johnson, P. R. & Woldehaimanot, B. 2003. Development of the Arabian-Nubian shield: perspectives on accretion and deformation in the northern East African Orogen and the assembly of Gondwana. In The Timing and Location of Major Ore Deposits in an Evolving Orogen (eds Blundell, D. J., Neubauer, F. & von Quadt, A.), pp. 289325. Geological Society of London Special Publication no. 206.
Keppie, J. D. & Dostal, J. 1991. Late Proterozoic tectonic model for the Avalon Terrane in Maritime Canada. Tectonics 10, 842–50.
Krogh, T. E. 1973. A low contamination method for the hydrothermal decomposition of zircon and extraction of U and Pb for isotopic age determinations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 485–94.
Krogh, T. E., Strong, D. F., O'Brien, S. J. & Papezik, V. 1988. Precise U-Pb zircon dates from the Avalon Terrane in Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 25, 442–53.
Kuno, H. 1968. Differentiation of basalt magmas. In 77th Poldervaart Treatise, on Rocks of Basaltic Composition, vol. 2 (eds Hess, H. H. & Poldervaart, A.), pp. 623–88. New York: Interscience.
Landoll, J. D., Foland, K. A. & Henderson, C. M. 1994. Nd-isotopes demonstrate the role of contamination in the formation of coexisting quartz- and nepheline syenites at the Abu Khruq complex, Egypt. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 117, 305–29.
Laurent, O., Martin, H., Moyen, J. F. & Doucelance, R. 2014. The diversity and evolution of late-Archean granitoids: evidence for the onset of ‘modern-style’ plate tectonics between 3.0 and 2.5 Ga. Lithos 205, 208–35.
Martin, H. 1987. Petrogenesis of Archean trondhjemites, tonalites, and granodiorites from Eastern Finland: major and trace element geochemistry. Journal of Petrology 28, 921–53.
Martin, H. 1993. The mechanisms of petrogenesis of the Archean continental crust: comparison with modem processes. Lithos 30, 373–88.
Martin, H. 1999. The adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids. Lithos 46, 411–29.
Martin, H. & Moyen, J. F. 2002. Secular changes in TTG composition as markers of the progressive cooling of the Earth. Geology 30, 319–22.
Martin, H., Smithies, R. H., Rapp, R., Moyen, J. F. & Champion, D. 2005. An overview of adakite, tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution. Lithos 79, 124.
Maurice, A. E., Basta, F. F. & Khiamy, A. A. 2012. Neoproterozoic nascent island arc volcanism from the Nubian shield of Egypt: magma genesis and generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs. Lithos 132, 120.
Meert, J. G. 2002. A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics 374, 140.
Meert, J. G. & Lieberman, B. S. 2008. The Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana and its relationship to the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation. Gondwana Research 14, 521.
Meert, J. G. & Torsvik, T. H. 2003. The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited. Tectonophysics 375, 261–88.
Meert, J. G. & Van der Voo, R. 1996. Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar study of the Sinyai dolerite, Kenya: implications for Gondwana assembly. Journal of Geology 104, 131–42.
Meert, J. G. & Van der Voo, R. 1997. The assembly of Gondwana 800–550 Ma. Journal of Geodynamics 23, 223–35.
Middlemost, E. A. K. 1997. Magmas, Rocks and Planetary Development. Harlow: Longman, 299 pp.
Moyen, J. F. 2009. High Sr/Y and La/Y ratios: the meaning of the ‘adakitic signature’. Lithos 112, 556–74.
Moyen, J. F., Jayananda, H. & Auvray, M. B. 2003. Late Archaean granites: a typology based on the Dharwar Craton (India). Precambrian Research 127, 103–23.
Moyen, J. F. & Stevens, G. 2006. Experimental constraints on TTG petrogenesis: implications for Archean geodynamics. In Archean Geodynamics and Environments (eds Benn, K., Mareschal, J.-C. & Condie, K. C.), pp. 149–78. AGU Geophysical Monograph 164.
Moyen, J. F., Stevens, G., Kisters, A. F. M. & Belcher, R. W. 2007. TTG plutons of the Barberton granitoid-greenstone terrain, South Africa. In Earth's Oldest Rocks (eds Van Kranendonk, M. J., Smithies, R. H. & Bennet, V.), 606–68. Developments in Precambrian Geology 15
Nohada, S. & Wasserburg, G. J. 1981. Nd and Sr isotopic study of volcanic rocks from Japan. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 52, 264–76.
O'Connor, J. T. 1965. A classification for quartz-rich igneous rocks based on feldspar ratios. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 525-B, 7984.
Pearce, J. A., Harris, N. B. W. & Tindle, A. G. 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 25, 956–83.
Popov, V. S., Nikiforova, N. F. & Bogatov, V. I. 2001. Multiple gabbro-granite intrusive series of the Syrostan pluton, southern Urals: geochemistry and petrology. Geochemistry International 39, 732–47.
Prouteau, G., Scaillet, B., Pichavant, M. & Maury, R. C. 2001. Evidence for mantle metasomatism by hydrous silicic melts derived from subducted oceanic crust. Nature 410, 197200.
Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N. & Norman, M. D. 2003. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature 425, 605–9.
Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N., Norman, M. D. & Applegate, G. S. 1999. Reaction between slab-derived melts and peridotite in the mantle wedge: experimental constraints at 3.8 GPa. Chemical Geology 160, 335–56.
Santos, L. C. M. L., Dantas, E. L., Cawood, P. A., Santos, E. J. & Fuck, R. A. 2017. Neoarchean crustal growth and Paleoproterozoic reworking in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil: insights from geochemical and isotopic data of TTG and metagranitic rocks of the Alto Moxoto Terrane. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 79, 342–63.
Savov, I., Ryan, J., Haydoutov, I. & Schijf, J. 2001. Lare Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite – a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 110, 299318.
Schmidt, M. W., Dardon, A., Chazot, G. & Vannucci, R. 2004. The dependence of Nb and Ta rutile-melt partitioning on melt composition and Nb/Ta fractionation during subduction processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 226, 415–32.
Schmidt, M. W. & Poli, S. 2004. Magmatic epidote. Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry 56, 399430.
Schmitt, A. K., Emmermann, R., Trumbull, R. B., Buèhn, B. & Henjes-Kunst, F. 2000. Petrogenesis and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Brandberg complex, Namibia: evidence for a major mantle contribution in metaluminous and peralkaline granites. Journal of Petrology 41, 1207–39.
Schuermann, H. M. 1966. The Pre-Cambrian along the Gulf of the Suez and the Northern Part of the Red Sea. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 76 pp.
Shackleton, R. M. 1996. The final collision zone between East and West Gondwana: where is it? Journal of African Earth Sciences 23, 271–87.
Silva, L. C., McNaughton, N. J., Armstrong, R., Hartmann, L. A. & Fletcher, I. R. 2005a. The Neoproterozoic Mantiqueira Province and its African connections: a zircon-based U–Pb geochronologic subdivision for the Brasiliano/Pan-African systems of orogens. Precambrian Research 136, 203–40.
Silva, L. C., McNaughton, N. J. & Fletcher, I. R. 2005 b. SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology of Neoproterozoic crustal granitoids (Southern Brazil): a case for discrimination of emplacement and inherited ages. Lithos 82, 503–25.
Smithies, R. H. & Champion, D. C. 2000. The Archaean high-Mg diorite suite: links to tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite magmatism and implications for early Archaean crustal growth. Journal of Petrology 41, 1653–71.
Souza, Z. S., Potrel, H., Lafon, J. M., Althoff, F. J., Pimentel, M. M., Dall'Agnol, R. & Oliveira, C. G. 2001. Nd, Pb and Sr isotopes of the Identidade Belt, an Archaean greenstone belt of the Rio Maria region (Carajas Province, Brazil): implications for the Archaean geodynamic evolution of the Amazonian Craton. Precambrian Research 109, 293315.
Steiger, R. H. & Jäger, E. 1977. Sub-commission on Geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 36, 359–62.
Sun, S. S. & McDonough, W. F. 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Magmatism in Ocean Basins (eds Saunders, A. S. & Norry, M. J.), pp. 313–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 42.
Tohver, E., D'Agrella, M. S. & Trindade, R. J. F. 2006. Paleomagnetic record of Africa and South America for the 1200–500 Ma interval, and evaluation of Radinia and Gondwana assemblies. Precambrian Research 147, 193222.
Trompette, R. 1994. Geology of Western Gondawana (200-500 Ma): Pan-African - Brasiliano Aggregation of South America and Africa (trans. Corozzi, A.V.). Rotterdam: Balkema, 350 pp.
Tucker, R. D., Ashwal, L. D., Handke, M. J., Hamilton, M. A., Le Grange, M. & Rambeloson, R. A. 1999. U-Pb geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of North-Central Madagascar. Journal of Geology 107, 135–53.
Vail, J. R. 1985. Alkaline ring complexes in Sudan. Journal of African Earth Sciences 3, 51–9.
Veevers, J. J. 2003. Pan-African is Pan-Gondwanaland: oblique convergence drives rotation during 650–500 Ma assembly. Geology 31, 501–4.
Veevers, J. J. 2004. Gondwanaland from 650–500 Ma assembly through 320 Ma merger in Pangea to 185–100 Ma breakup: supercontinental tectonics via stratigraphy and radiometric dating. Earth-Science Reviews 68, 1132.
Wilson, T., Grunow, A. M. & Hanson, R. E. 1997. Gondwana Assembly: the view from southern Africa and East Gondwana. Journal of Geodynamics 23, 263–86.
Winther, K. T. 1996. An experimentally based model for the origin of tonalitic and trondhjemitic melts. Chemical Geology 127, 4359.
Wolf, M. B. & Wyllie, P. J. 1989. The formation of tonalitic liquids during the vapor-absent partial melting of amphibolite at 10 kb. Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 70, 506.
Wylie, P. J., Wolf, M. B. & van der Laan, S. R. 1997. Conditions for Formation of Tonalites and Trondhjemites: Magmatic Sources and Products. In Greenstone Belts (eds De Wit, M. & Ashwal, L. D.) pp. 256–66. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Xiong, X. L., Adam, J. & Green, T. H. 2005. Rutile stability and rutile/melt HFSE partitioning during partial melting of hydrous basalt: implications for TTG genesis. Chemical Geology 218, 339–59.
Zen, E. A. N. & Hammarstorm, J. M. 1984. Magmatic epidote and its petrologic significance. Geology 12, 515–18.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed