Skip to main content Accessibility help

Genesis of the Chehugou Mo-bearing granitic complex on the northern margin of the North China Craton: geochemistry, zircon U–Pb age and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes



The Chehugou granite-hosted molybdenum deposit is typical of the Xilamulun metallogenic belt, which is an important Mo–Ag–Pb–Zn producer in China. A combination of major and trace element, Sr and Nd isotope, and zircon U–Pb isotopic data are reported for the Chehugou batholith to constrain its petrogenesis and Mo mineralization. The zircon SIMS U–Pb dating yields mean ages of 384.7 ± 4.0 Ma and 373.1 ± 5.9 Ma for monzogranite and syenogranite and 265.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 245.1 ± 4.4 Ma for syenogranite porphyry and granite porphyry, respectively. The Devonian granites are calc-alkaline with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.44–0.52, the Permian granites are alkali-calcic with K2O/Na2O ratios of 1.13–1.25, and the Triassic granites are calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic rocks with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.78–1.63. They are all enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs) with negative Nb and Ta anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized trace element diagrams. They have relatively high Sr (189–1256 ppm) and low Y (3.87–5.43 ppm) concentrations. The Devonian granites have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.7100–0.7126, negative ɛNd(t) values of −12.3 to −12.4 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.46–17.50. In contrast, the Permian and Triassic granitoids have relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048–0.7074), negative ɛNd(t) values of −10.1 to −13.1 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 17.23–17.51. These geochemical features suggest that the Devonian, Permian and Triassic Chehugou granitoids were derived from ancient, garnet-bearing crustal rocks related to subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean and subsequent continent–continent collision between the North China and Siberian plates.


Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence:


Hide All
Atherton, M. P. & Petford, N. 1993. Generation of sodium-rich magmas from newly underplated basaltic crust. Nature 362, 144–6.
Barbarin, B. 1999. A review of the relationships between granitoid types, their origins and their geodynamic environments. Lithos 46, 605–26.
Batchelor, R. A. & Bowden, P. 1985. Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters. Chemical Geology 48, 4355.
Black, L. P., Kamo, S. L., Aleiikof, J. N., Davis, D. W., Korsch, R. L. & Foudoulis, C. 2003. TEMORA 1: a new zircon standard for Phanerozoic U–Pb geochronology. Chemical Geology 200, 155–70.
Boynton, W. V. 1984. Cosmochemistry of rare earth elements: meteorite studies. In Rare Earth Element Geochemistry (ed. Henderson, P.), pp. 63114. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Neimongol Autonomous Region (BGMR). 1991. Regional Geology of Neimongol Autonomous Region. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 532 pp. (in Chinese).
Candela, P. A. & Piccoli, P. 2005. Magmatic processes in the development of porphyry-type ore systems. In Economic Geology, 100th Anniversary Volume (eds Hedenquist, J. W., Thompson, J. F. H., Goldfarb, R. J. & Richards, J. P.), pp. 2537. Littleton, Colorado: Society of Economic Geologists.
Carten, R. B., White, W. H. & Stein, H. J. 1993. High-grade granite-related molybdenum systems: classification and origin. In Mineral Deposit Modelling (eds Kirkham, R. V., Sinclair, W. D., Thorpe, R. I. & Duke, J. M.), pp. 521–44. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper no. 40.
Chen, F. K., Hegner, E. & Todt, W. 2000. Zircon ages, Nd isotopic and chemical compositions of orthogneisses from the Black Forest, Germany – evidence for a Cambrian magmatic arc. International Journal of Earth Sciences 88, 791802.
Chen, W. J., Liu, J. M., Liu, H. T., Zhang, Z. L., Qin, F. & Zhang, R. B. 2010. Geochronology and fluid study of the Jiguanshan porphyry Mo deposit, Inner Mongolia. Acta Petrologica Sinica 26, 1423–36 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Chen, F. K., Siebel, W., Satir, M., Terzioglu, N. & Saka, K. 2002. Geochronology of the Karadere basement (NW Turkey) and implications for the geological evolution of the Istanbul zone. International Journal of Earth Sciences 91, 469–81.
Chen, Z. S., Zhang, L. G., Liu, J. X., Wang, B. C., Xu, J. F. & Zheng, W. S. 1994. A study on lead isotope geochemical backgrounds of geological bodies in Jiaodong region. Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 10, 6578 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Condie, K. C. 1993. Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results from surface samples and shales. Chemical Geology 104, 137.
Defant, M. J. & Drummond, M. S. 1990. Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature 347, 662–5.
Didier, J. & Barbarin, B. 1991. Enclaves and Granite Petrology. Developments in Petrology 13. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 625 pp.
Dobretsov, N. L., Berzin, N. A. & Buslov, M. 1995. Opening and tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. International Geology Review 37, 335–60.
Eichelberger, J. C. 1980. Vesiculation of mafic magma during replenishment of silicic magma reservoirs. Nature 288, 446–50.
Frost, B. R., Barnes, C. G., Collins, W. J., Argulus, R. J., Ellis, D. J. & Frost, C. D. 2001. A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 42, 2033–48.
Gao, S., Liu, X. M., Yuan, H. L., Hattendorf, B., Gunther, D., Chen, L., & Hu, S. H. 2002. Determination of forty-two major and trace elements in USGS and NIST SRM glasses by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geostandards Newsletter 26, 191–6.
Hart, S. R. 1984. A large-scale isotope anomaly in the Southern Hemisphere mantle. Nature 309, 753–7.
Holden, P., Halliday, A. N. & Stephens, W. E. 1987. Neodymium and strontium isotope content of microdiorite enclaves points to mantle input to granitoid production. Nature 330, 53–6.
Hong, D. W., Wang, S. G., Xie, X. L. & Zhang, J. S. 2000. Genesis of positive ɛNd(t) granitoids in Da Hinggan Mountains–Mongolia orogenic belt and growth of continental crust. Earth Science Frontiers 7, 441–56 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hong, D. W., Wang, S. G., Xie, X. L., Zhang, J. S. & Wang, T. 2003. Correlation between continental growth and the supercontinental cycle: evidence from the granites with positive ɛNd in the Central Asian orogenic belt. Acta Geologica Sinica 77, 203–9 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Jahn, B. M., Wu, F. Y., Lo, C. H. & Tsai, C. 1999. Crust-mantle interaction induced by deep subduction of the continental crust: geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic evidence from post-collisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the northern Dabie complex, central China. Chemical Geology 157, 119–46.
Kesler, S. E., Jones, L. M. & Walker, R. L. 1975. Intrusive rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization in island arc areas. Economic Geology 70, 515–26.
Kooiman, G. J. A., McLeod, M. J. & Sinclair, W. D. 1986. Porphyry tungsten-molybdenum orebodies, polymetallic veins and replacement bodies, and tin-bearing greisen zones in the Fire Tower Zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick. Economic Geology 81, 1356–73.
Kuster, D. & Harms, U. 1998. Post-collisional potassic granitoids from the southern and northwestern parts of the late Neo-proterozoic East African Orogen: a review. Lithos 45, 177–95.
Li, X. H., Liu, Y., Li, Q. L., Guo, C. H. & Chamberlain, K. R. 2009. Precise determination of Phanerozoic zircon Pb/Pb age by multicollector SIMS without external standardization. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 10, Q04010, doi:10.1029/2009GC002400, 21 pp.
Li, S. C. & Wang, S. L. 1995. Geochemical characteristics of gold deposits of the north margin of the North China Continental Table, China. Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 10, 819 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Liu, J. M., Zhao, Y., Sun, Y. L., Li, D. P., Liu, J., Chen, B. L., Zhang, S. H. & Sun, W. D. 2010. Recognition of the latest Permian to Early Triassic Cu–Mo mineralization on the northern margin of the North China block and its geological significance. Gondwana Research 17, 125–34.
Ludwig, K. R. 2001. Users Manual for Isoplot/Ex Rev. 2.49. Berkeley Geochronology Centre Special Publication no. 1a, 56 pp.
Martin, H. 1999. Adakitic magma: modern analogues of Archean granitoids. Lithos 46, 411–29.
Miao, L. C., Fan, W. M., Liu, D. Y., Zhang, F. Q., Shi, Y. R. & Guo, F. 2008. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Hegenshan ophiolitic complex: implications for late-stage tectonic evolution of the Inner Mongolia-Daxinganling Orogenic Belt, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 32, 348–70.
Mutschler, F. E., Wright, E. G., Ludington, S. & Abbott, J. T. 1981. Granite molybdenite systems. Economic Geology 76, 874–97.
Nie, F. J., Zhang, W. Y., Du, A. D., Jiang, S. H. & Liu, Y. 2007. Re-Os isotopic dating on molybdenite separates from the Xiaodonggou porphyry Mo deposit, Hexigten Qi, Mongolia. Acta Geologica Sinica 81, 898905 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Ohmoto, H. 1986. Stable isotope geochemistry of ore deposits. In Reviews in Mineralogy vol. 16: Stable Isotopes in High Temperature Geological Processes (eds Valley, J. W., Taylor, H. P. & O'Neil, J. R.), pp.491559. Mineralogical Society of America.
Patino Douce, A. E. 1999. What do experiments tell us about the relative contribution of crust and mantle to the origin of granitic magmas? In Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques (eds Castro, A., Fernández, C. & Vignersse, J. L.), pp. 5576. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 168.
Qin, F., Liu, J. M., Zeng, Q. D. & Luo, Z. H. 2009. Petrogenetic and metallogenic mechanism of the Xiaodonggou porphyry molybdenum deposit in Hexigten Banner, Inner Mongolia. Acta Petrologica Sinica 25, 3357–68 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Rui, Z. Y., Shi, L. D. & Fang, R. L. 1994. Geology and Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass and its Adjacent Area. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 476 pp. (in Chinese).
Seedorff, E., Dilles, J. H., Proffett, J. M. Jr & Einaudi, M. T. 2005. Porphyry deposits: characteristics and origin of hypogene features. Economic Geology, 100th Anniversary Volume (eds Hedenquist, J. W., Thompson, J. F. H., Goldfarb, R. J. & Richards, J. P.), pp. 251–98. Littleton, Colorado: Society of Economic Geologists.
Selby, D., Nesbitt, B. E., Muehlenbachs, K. & Prochaska, W. 2000. Hydrothermal alteration and fluid chemistry of the Endako porphyry molybdenum deposit, British Columbia. Economic Geology 95, 183202.
Shang, Q. H. 2004. The discovery of the Permian radiolarian in Middle-Eastern Inner Mongolia, North China Orogenic Belt, and its significance. Chinese Science Bulletin 49, 2574–9 (in Chinese).
Shi, G. H., Miao, L. C., Zhang, F. Q., Jian, P., Fan, W. M. & Liu, D. Y. 2004. The time of A-type granite of Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia, and its tectonic significance. Chinese Science Bulletin 49, 384–9 (in Chinese).
Sillitoe, R. H. 1980. Types of porphyry molybdenum deposits. Mining Magazine 142, 550–3.
Sláma, J., Koler, J., Condon, D. J., Crowley, J. L., Gerdes, A., Hanchar, J. M., Horstwood, M. S. A., Morris, G. A., Nasdala, L., Norberg, N., Schaltegger, U., Schoene, B., Tubrett, M. N. & Whitehouse, M. J. 2008. Plesovice zircon—A new natural reference material for U-Pb and Hf isotopic microanalysis. Chemical Geology 249, 135.
Song, B., Zhang, Y. & Wan, Y. S. 2002 Mount making and procedure of the SHRIMP dating. Geological Review 48(Supp), 2630 (in Chinese).
Stacey, J. S. & Kramers, J. D. 1975. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 26, 207–21.
Taylor, S. R. & McLennan, S. M. 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 312 pp.
Titley, S. R. & Beane, R. E. 1981. Porphyry copper deposits. In Economic Geology Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Volume, 1905–1980 (ed. Skinner, B. J.), pp. 214–69. Economic Geology Publishing Co.
Vernon, R. H. 1984. Microgranitoid enclaves in granite-globules of hybrid magma quenched in a plutonic environment. Nature 309, 438–9.
Vernon, R. H. & Flood, R. H. 1988. Contrasting deformation of Sand I-type granitoids in the Lachlan fold belt, eastern Australia. Tectonophysics 147, 127–43.
Wan, B., Hegner, E., Zhang, L. C., Rocholl, A., Chen, Z. G., Wu, H. Y. & Chen, F. K. 2009. Re-Os geochronology of chalcopyrite from the Chehugou porphyry Mo–Cu deposit (Northeast China) and geochemical constraints on origin of hosting granites. Economic Geology 104, 351–63.
White, W. H., Bookstrom, A. A., Kamilli, R. J., Ganster, M. W., Smith, R. P., Ranta, D. E. & Steininger, R. C. 1981. Character and origin of Climax-type molybdenum deposits, In Economic Geology Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Volume, 1905–1980 (ed. Skinner, B. J.), pp. 270316. Economic Geology Publishing Co.
Windley, B. F., Kroner, A., Guo, J., Qu, G., Li, Y. & Zhang, C. 2002. Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic geology of the Altai orogen, NW China: new zircon age data and tectonic evolution. Journal of Geology 110, 719–37.
Wu, F. Y., Sun, D. Y. & Lin, Q. 1999. Petrogenesis of the Phanerozoic granites and crustal growth in Northeast China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 15, 181–9 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wu, F. Y., Wilde, S. A., Zhang, G. L. & Sun, D. Y. 2004. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the post-orogenic Cu-Ni sulfide-bearing mafic–ultramafic complexes in Jilin Province, NE China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 23, 781–97.
Wu, F. Y., Yang, J. H., Wilde, S. A. & Zhang, X. O. 2005. Geochronology, petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Jurassic granites in the Liaodong Peninsula, NE China. Chemical Geology 221, 127–56.
Wu, H. Y., Zhang, L. C, Chen, Z. G. & Wan, B. 2008. Geochemistry, tectonic setting and mineralization potentiality of the ore-bearing monzogranite in the Kulitu molybdenum (copper) deposit of Xar moron metallogenic belt, Inner Mongolia. Acta Petrologica Sinica 24, 867–78 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wu, H. Y., Zhang, L. C., Wan, B., Chen, Z. G., Xiang, P., Pirajno, F., Du, A. D. & Qu, W. J. 2011. Re–Os and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Jiguanshan porphyry Mo deposit, Xilamulun metallogenic belt, NE China, and constraints on mineralization events. Mineralium Deposita 46, 171–85.
Wu, F. Y., Zhao, G. C., Sun, D. Y., Wilde, S. A. & Yang, J. H. 2007. The Hulan Group: its role in the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt of NE China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30, 542–56.
Xiao, Q. H., Deng, J. F. & Ma, D. Q. 2002. The Ways of Investigation on Granitoids. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 294 pp. (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xiao, W. J., Windley, B. F., Hao, J. & Zhai, M. G. 2003. Accretion leading to collision and the Permian Solonker suture, Inner Mongolia, China: termination of the central Asian orogenic belt. Tectonics 22, 1069, doi:10.1029/2002TC001484.
Yang, J. H., Chung, S. L., Wilde, S. A., Wu, F. Y., Chu, M. F., Lo, C. H. & Fan, H. R. 2005. Petrogenesis of post-orogenic syenites in the Sulu Orogenic Belt, east China: geochronological, geochemical and Nd–Sr isotopic evidence. Chemical Geology 214, 99125.
Yang, J. H., Wu, F. Y., Chung, S. L., Wilde, S. A. & Chu, M. F. 2004. Multiple sources for the origin of granites: geochemical and Nd/Sr isotopic evidence from the Gudaoling granite and its mafic enclaves, northeast China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, 4469–83.
Zartman, R. E. & Doe, B. R. 1981. Plumbotectonics: the model. Tectonophysics 75, 135–62.
Zeng, Q. D., Liu, J. M., Qin, F. & Zhang, Z. L. 2010. Geochronology of the Xiaodonggou porphyry Mo deposit in northern margin of North China Craton. Resource Geology 60, 192202.
Zeng, Q. D., Liu, J. M., Zhang, Z. L., Chen, W. J. & Zhang, W. Q. 2011 a. Geology and geochronology of the Xilamulun molybdenum metallogenic belt in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 17911809.
Zeng, Q. D., Liu, J. M., Zhang, Z. L., Qin, F., Cheng, W. J., Yu, C. M. & Ye, J. 2009. Ore forming time of the Jiguanshan porphyry molybdenum deposit, north margin of North China Craton and the Indosinian mineralization. Acta Petrologica Sinica 25, 393–8 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zeng, Q. D., Liu, J. M., Zhang, Z. L., Zhang, W. Q., Chu, S. X., Zhang, S., Wang, Z. C. & Duan, X. X. 2011 b. Geology, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope studies of the Chehugou porphyry molybdenum–copper deposit, Xilamulun metallogenic belt, NE China. Resource Geology 61, 241–58.
Zhang, S. H., Liu, S. W., Zhao, Y., Yang, J. H., Song, B. & Liu, X. M. 2007. The 1.75–1.68 Ga anorthosite-mangerite-alkali granitoid-rapakivi granite suite from the northern North China Craton: magmatism related to a Paleoproterozoic orogen. Precambrian Research 155, 287312.
Zhang, L. C., Wu, H. Y., Wan, B. & Chen, Z. G. 2009. Ages and geodynamic settings of Xilamulun Mo–Cu metallogenic belt in the northern part of the North China Craton. Gondwana Research 16, 243–54.
Zindler, A. & Hart, S. 1986. Chemical geodynamics. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 14, 493571.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed