Agar, RA, Stacey, JS and Whitehouse, MJ (1992) Evolution of the southern Afif terrane: a geochronologic study. Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DGMR-OF-10-15, 1–41.
Al-Ajmi, HF, Keller, M, Hinderer, M and Filomena, CM (2015) Lithofacies, depositional environments and stratigraphic architecture of the Wajid Group outcrops in southern Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 20, 49–94.
Al-Harbi, OA and Khan, MM (2008) Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in Central Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 33, 278–87.
Al-Harbi, OA and Khan, MM (2011) Source and origin of glacial paleovalley-fill sediments (Upper Ordovician) of Sarah Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 4, 825–35.
Ali, KA, Stern, RJ, Manton, WI, Johnson, PR and Mukherjee, SK (2010) Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Northern Saudi Arabia: evidence of 750 Ma glaciation in the Arabian–Nubian Shield. International Journal of Earth Sciences 90, 705–26.
Alsharhan, AS, Nairn, AEM and Mohammed, AA (1993) Late Palaeozoic glacial sediments of the southern Arabian Peninsula: their lithofacies and hydrocarbon potential. Marine and Petroleum Geology 10, 71–8.
Altumi, MM, Elicki, O, Linnemann, U, Hofmann, M, Sagawe, A and Gärtner, A (2013) U–Pb LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon ages from the Cambrian of Al Qarqaf Arch, central-western Libya: provenance of the West Gondwanan sand sea at the dawn of the early Palaeozoic. Journal of African Earth Sciences 79, 74–97.
Avigad, D, Sandler, A, Kolodner, K, Stern, R, McWilliams, M, Miller, N and Beyth, M (2005) Mass-production of Cambro-Ordovician quartz-rich sandstone as a consequence of chemical weathering of Pan-African terranes: environmental implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240, 818–26.
Avigad, D, Gerdes, A, Morag, N and Bechstädt, T (2012) Coupled U–Pb–Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: implications for provenance and Precambrian crustal evolution of North Africa. Gondwana Research 21, 690–703.
Avigad, D, Morag, N, Abbo, A and Gerdes, A (2017) Detrital rutile U–Pb perspective on the origin of the great Cambro-Ordovician sandstone of North Gondwana and its linkage to orogeny. Gondwana Research 51, 17–29.
Avigad, D, Stern, RJ, Beyth, M, Miller, N and McWilliams, MO (2007) Detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology of Cryogenian diamictites and Lower Paleozoic sandstone in Ethiopia (Tigrai): age constraints on Neoproterozoic glaciation and crustal evolution of the southern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Precambrian Research 154, 88–106.
Babalola, LO (1999) Depositional environments and provenance of the Wajid Sandstone, Abha-Khamis Mushayt area. MSc thesis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
Bassis, A, Hinderer, M and Meinhold, G (2016a) Petrography and geochemistry of Palaeozoic quartz-rich sandstones from Saudi Arabia: implications for provenance and chemostratigraphy. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 9, 400. doi: 10.1007/s12517-016-2412-z.
Bassis, A, Hinderer, M and Meinhold, G (2016b) New insights into the provenance of Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic sandstones from heavy mineral analysis and single-grain geochemistry. Sedimentary Geology 333, 100–14.
Bea, F, Montero, P, Abu Anbar, M and Talavera, C (2011) SHRIMP dating and Nd isotope geology of the Archean terranes of the Uweinat-Kamil inlier, Egypt–Sudan–Libya. Precambrian Research 189, 328–46.
Be’eri-Shlevin, Y, Eyal, M, Eyal, Y, Whitehouse, MJ and Litvinovsky, B (2012) The Sa’al volcano-sedimentary complex (Sinai, Egypt), a latest Mesoproterozoic volcanic arc in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield. Geology 40, 403–6.
Be’eri-Shlevin, Y, Katzir, Y, Whitehouse, MJ and Kleinhanns, CI (2009) Contribution of pre Pan-African crust to formation of the Arabian Nubian Shield: new secondary ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb and O studies of zircon. Geology 37, 899–902.
Bishop, RS (1995) Maturation history of the lower Palaeozoic of the eastern Arabian Platform. In Middle East Petroleum Geosciences, GEO’94 (ed. Al-Husseini, MI), pp. 180–9. Manama: Gulf PetroLink.
Burke, K, MacGregor, DS and Cameron, NR (2003) Africa’s petroleum systems: four tectonic ‘Aces’ in the past 600 million years. In Petroleum Geology of Africa: New Themes and Developing Technologies (eds Arthur, TJ, MacGregor, DS and Cameron, NR), pp. 21–60. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 207.
Bussert, R (2010) Exhumed erosional landforms of the Late Palaeozoic glaciation in northern Ethiopia: indicators of ice-flow direction, palaeolandscape and regional ice dynamics. Gondwana Research 18, 356–69.
Clark-Lowes, DD (2005) Arabian glacial deposits: recognition of palaeovalleys within the Upper Ordovician Sarah Formation, Al Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 116, 331–47.
Corfu, F, Hanchar, JM, Hoskin, PWO and Kinny, P (2003) Atlas of zircon textures. In Zircon (eds Hanchar, JM and Hoskin, PWO), pp. 469–500. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry no. 53.
Dabbagh, ME and Rogers, JJW (1983) Depositional environments and tectonic significance of the Wajid Sandstone of Saudi Arabia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 1, 47–57.
Dickinson, WR and Gehrels, GE (2009) Use of U–Pb ages of detrital zircons to infer maximum depositional ages of strata: a test against a Colorado Plateau Mesozoic database. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288, 115–25.
Fritz, H, Abdelsalam, M, Ali, KA, Bingen, B, Collins, AS, Fowler, AR, Ghebreab, W, Hauzenberger, CA, Johnson, PR, Kusky, TM, Macey, P, Muhongo, S, Stern, RJ and Viola, G (2013) Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: a review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution. Journal of African Earth Sciences 86, 65–106.
Garfunkel, Z (2002) Early Paleozoic sediments of NE Africa and Arabia: products of continental-scale erosion, sediment transport and deposition. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 51, 135–56.
Garzanti, E, Vermeesch, P, Andò, S, Vezzoli, G, Valagussa, M, Allen, K, Kadi, KA and Al-Juboury, AIA (2013) Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand. Earth-Science Reviews 120, 1–19.
Golan, T, Katzir, Y and Coble, MA (2018) Early Carboniferous anorogenic magmatism in the Levant: implications for rifting in northern Gondwana. International Geology Review 60, 101–8.
Haq, BU and Schutter, SR (2008) A chronology of Paleozoic sea-level changes. Science 322, 64–8.
Hargrove, US, Stern, RJ, Kimura, J-L, Manton, WI and Johnson, PR (2006) How juvenile is the Arabian–Nubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre-Neoproterozoic inherited zircon from the Bi’r Umq suture zone, Saudi Arabia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 252, 308–26.
Hinderer, M, Keller, M, Al-Ajmi, H and Rausch, R (2009) Tales of two glaciations in the Paleozoic of SW Saudi Arabia: implications for ice shield dynamics and paleogeography of the SW Arabian Platform and adjacent areas. 5th Workshop of the ILP Task Force on Sedimentary Basins, 6–11 December 2009, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Höhndorf, A, Meinhold, K-D and Vail, JR (1994) Geochronology of anorogenic igneous complexes in the Sudan: isotopic investigations in north Kordofan, the Nubian Desert and the Red-Sea Hills. Journal of African Earth Sciences 19, 3–15.
Hubert, JF (1962) A zircon–tourmaline–rutile maturity index and the interdependence of the composition of heavy mineral assemblages with the gross composition and texture of sandstones. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 32, 440–50.
Hussain, M, Babalola, LO and Hariri, M (2000 ) Provenance of the Wajid Sandstone, southeastern margin of the Arabian shield: geochemical and petrographic approach. American Association of Petroleum Geologists National Conference, 16 April 1999, New Orleans, USA. Tulsa, OK: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Hussain, M, Babalola, LO and Hariri, MM (2004) Heavy minerals in the Wajid Sandstone from Abha-Khamis Mushayt area, southwestern Saudi Arabia: implications on provenance and regional tectonic setting. GeoArabia 9, 77–102.
Ibañez-Mejia, M, Pullen, A, Pepper, M, Urbani, F, Ghoshal, G and Ibañez-Mejia, JC (2018) Use and abuse of detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology: a case from the Río Orinoco delta, eastern Venezuela. Geology 46, 1019–22.
Johnson, PR (2014) An expanding Arabian-Nubian Shield geochronologic and isotopic dataset: defining limits and confirming the tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic accretionary orogen. The Open Geology Journal 8, 3–33.
Johnson, PR, Andresen, A, Collins, AS, Fowler, AR, Fritz, H, Ghebreab, W, Kusky, T and Stern, RJ (2011) Late Cryogenian–Ediacaran history of the Arabian–Nubian Shield: a review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen. Journal of African Earth Sciences 61, 167–232.
Johnson, PR, Halverson, GP, Kusky, TM, Stern, RJ and Pease, V (2013) Volcanosedimentary basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: markers of repeated exhumation and denudation in a Neoproterozoic accretionary orogen. Geosciences 3, 389–445.
Keller, M, Hinderer, M, Al-Ajmi, HF and Rausch, R (2011) Palaeozoic glacial depositional environments of SW Saudi Arabia: process and product. In Ice-Marginal and Periglacial Processes and Sediments (eds Martini, IP, French, HM and Pérez Alberti, A), pp. 129–52. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 354.
Knox, RWO’B, Franks, SG and Cocker, JD (2007) Stratigraphic evolution of heavy-mineral provenance signatures in the sandstones of the Wajid Group (Cambrian to Permian), southwestern Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 12, 65–96.
Köksal, S, Toksoy-Köksal, F, Göncüoglu, MC, Möller, A, Gerdes, A and Frei, D (2013) 3.8 Ga zircons sampled by Neogene ignimbrite eruptions in Central Anatolia: COMMENT. Geology 41, e307.
Kolodner, K, Avigad, D, McWilliams, M, Wooden, JL, Weissbrod, T and Feinstein, S (2006) Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian–Ordovician sandstone: U–Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan. Geological Magazine 143, 367–91.
Kongnyuy, SC, Giulio, M and Satir, M (2012) Archaean zircon U-Pb age paradox in juvenile Neoproterozoic granitoids, Central North Sudan, Saharan Metacraton. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 21, 97–125.
Kooijman, E, Berndt, J and Mezger, K (2012) U–Pb dating of zircon by laser ablation ICP-MS: recent improvements and new insights. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 5–21.
Kröner, A1985. Ophiolites and the evolution of tectonic boundaries in the late Proterozoic Arabian–Nubian shield of northeast Africa and Arabia. Precambrian Research 27, 277–300.
Kröner, A, Stern, RJ, Dawoud, AS, Compston, W and Reischmann, T (1987) The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa: evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 85, 91–104.
Küster, D, Liégeois, J-P, Matukov, D, Sergeev, S and Lucassen, F (2008) Zircon geochronology and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope geochemistry of granitoids from Bayuda Desert and Sabaloka (Sudan): evidence for a Bayudian event (920–900 Ma) preceding the Pan-African orogenic cycle (860–590 Ma) at the eastern boundary of the Saharan Metacraton. Precambrian Research 164, 16–39.
Laboun, AA (2010) Paleozoic tectono-stratigraphic framework of the Arabian Peninsula. Journal of King Saud University (Science) 22, 41–50.
Linnemann, U, Ouzegane, K, Drareni, A, Hofmann, M, Becker, S, Gärtner, A and Sagawe, A (2011) Sands of West Gondwana: an archive of secular magmatism and plate interactions – a case study from the Cambro-Ordovician section of the Tassili Ouan Ahaggar (Algerian Sahara) using U–Pb–LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon ages. Lithos 123, 188–203.
Lewin, A, Meinhold, G, Hinderer, M, Dawit, EL and Bussert, R (2018) Provenance of sandstones in Ethiopia during Late Ordovician and Carboniferous–Permian Gondwana glaciations: petrography and geochemistry of the Enticho Sandstone and the Edaga Arbi Glacials. Sedimentary Geology 375, 188–202.
Lewin, A, Meinhold, G, Hinderer, M, Dawit, EL, Bussert, R and Berndt, J (2020a) Provenance of Ordovician–Silurian and Carboniferous–Permian glaciogenic successions in Ethiopia revealed by detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology. Journal of the Geological Society, London 177, 141–52.
Lewin, A, Meinhold, G, Hinderer, M, Dawit, EL, Bussert, R and Lünsdorf, NK (2020b) Heavy minerals as provenance indicator in glaciogenic successions: an example from the Palaeozoic of Ethiopia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 165, 103813. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2020.103813.
Löwen, K, Meinhold, G, Güngör, T and Berndt, J (2017) Palaeotethys-related sediments of the Karaburun Peninsula, western Turkey: constraints on provenance and stratigraphy from detrital zircon geochronology. International Journal of Earth Sciences 106, 2771–96.
McClure, HA (1980) Permian-Carboniferous glaciation in the Arabian Peninsula. Geological Society of America Bulletin 91, 707–12.
Meinhold, G, Morton, AC and Avigad, D (2013) New insights into peri-Gondwana paleogeography and the Gondwana super-fan system from detrital zircon U–Pb ages. Gondwana Research 23, 661–5.
Meinhold, G, Morton, AC, Fanning, CM, Frei, D, Howard, JP, Phillips, RJ, Strogen, D and Whitham, AG (2011) Evidence from detrital zircons for recycling of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic crust recorded in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstones of southern Libya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 312, 164–75.
Morag, N, Avigad, D, Gerdes, A, Belousova, E and Harlavan, Y (2011) Detrital zircon Hf isotopic composition indicates long-distance transport of North Gondwana Cambrian–Ordovician sandstones. Geology 39, 955–8.
Morton, AC, Whitham, A, Howard, J, Fanning, M, Abutarruma, Y, El Dieb, M, Elkatarry, FM, Hamhoom, AM, Lüning, S, Phillips, R and Thusu, B (2012) Using heavy minerals to test the stratigraphic framework of Al Kufrah Basin. In Fourth Symposium on the Sedimentary Basins of Libya: The Geology of Southern Libya, vol. 3 (eds Salem, MJ and Abadi, AM), pp. 33–76. Tripoli: Earth Science Society of Libya.
Nutman, AP, Mohajjel, M, Bennett, VC and Fergusson, CL (2014) Gondwanan Eoarchean–Neoproterozoic ancient crustal material in Iran and Turkey: zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopic evidence. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 51, 272–85.
Paquette, JL and Le Pennec, JL (2012) 3.8 Ga zircons sampled by Neogene ignimbrite eruptions in Central Anatolia. Geology 40, 239–42.
Paquette, JL and Le Pennec, JL (2013) 3.8 Ga zircons sampled by Neogene ignimbrite eruptions in Central Anatolia: REPLY. Geology 41, e308. doi: 10.1130/G34899y.1.
Pollastro, RM, Karshbaum, AS and Viger, RJ (1998) Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geologic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula. United States Geological Survey, Open-File Report 97-470B, 1–14.
Powers, RW (1968) Saudi Arabia. In Lexique Stratigraphique International, vol. III , Asie (ed Dubertret, L), pp. 1–177. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Powers, RW, Ramirez, LF, Redmond, CD and Elberg, EL Jr (1966) Geology of the Arabian Peninsula: sedimentary geology of Saudi Arabia. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 560, 1–147.
Ramos, E, Navidad, M, Marzo, M and Bolatti, N (2003) Middle Ordovician K-bentonite beds in the Murzuq Basin (Central Libya). In Ordovician from the Andes (eds Albanesi, GL, Beresi, MS and Peralta, SH), pp. 203–7. Serie Correlación Geológica no. 17. Tucumán: Instituto Superior de Correlación Geológica, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán.
Sharland, PR, Archer, R, Casey, DM, Davies, RB, Hall, SH, Heward, AP, Horbury, AD and Simmons, MD (2001) Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia, Special Publication 2, 1–371.
Spencer, CJ, Kirkland, CL and Taylor, RJM (2016) Strategies towards statistically robust interpretations of in situ U–Pb zircon geochronology. Geoscience Frontiers 7, 581–9.
Squire, RJ, Campbell, IH, Allen, CM and Wilson, CJL (2006) Did the Transgondwanan Supermountain trigger the explosive radiation of animals on Earth? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 250, 116–33.
Stephan, T, Kroner, U and Romer, RL (2019a) The pre-orogenic detrital zircon record of the Peri-Gondwanan crust. Geological Magazine 156, 281–307.
Stephan, T, Kroner, U, Romer, RL and Rösel, D (2019b) From a bipartite Gondwanan shelf to an arcuate Variscan belt: the early Paleozoic evolution of northern Peri-Gondwana. Earth-Science Reviews 192, 491–512.
Stern, RJ (1994) Arc assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22, 319–51.
Stern, RJ, Ali, KA, Liégeois, J-P, Johnson, P, Wiescek, F and Kattan, F (2010) Distribution and significance of pre-Neoproterozoic zircons in juvenile Neoproterozoic igneous rocks of the Arabian–Nubian Shield. American Journal of Science 310, 791–811.
Stern, RJ, Ali, KA, Abdelsalam, MG, Wilde, SA and Zhou, Q (2012) U–Pb zircon geochronology of the eastern part of the Southern Ethiopian Shield. Precambrian Research 206–207, 159–67.
Stern, RJ, Ren, M, Ali, K, Förster, H-J, Al Safarjalani, A, Nasir, S, Whitehouse, MJ, Leybourne, MI and Romer, RL (2014) Early Carboniferous (~357 Ma) crust beneath northern Arabia: tales from Tell Thannoun (southern Syria). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 393, 83–93.
Stump, TE and van der Eem, JG (1995) The stratigraphy, depositional environments and periods of deforination of the Wajid outcrop belt, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 21, 421–41.
Teklay, M, Kröner, A, Mezger, K and Oberhänsli, R (1998) Geochemistry, Pb–Pb single zircon ages and Nd–Sr isotope composition of Precambrian rocks from southern and eastern Ethiopia: implications for crustal evolution in East Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences 26, 207–27.
Torsvik, TH and Cocks, LRM (2013) Gondwana from top to base in space and time. Gondwana Research 24, 999–1030.
Veevers, JJ (2007) Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650–500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: a review. Earth-Science Reviews 83, 1–47.
Vermeesch, P (2013) Multi-sample comparison of detrital age distributions. Chemical Geology 341, 140–6.
Vermeesch, P and Garzanti, E (2015) Making geological sense of “Big Data” in sedimentary provenance analysis. Chemical Geology 409, 20–7.
Vermeesch, P, Resentini, A and Garzanti, E (2016) An R package for statistical provenance analysis. Sedimentary Geology 336, 14–25.
Whitehouse, MJ, Stoeser, DB and Stacey, JS (2001) The Khida Terrane: geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Gondwana Research 4, 200–2.
Whitehouse, MJ, Windley, BF, Ba-Bttat, MAO, Fanning, CM and Rex, DC (1998) Crustal evolution and terrane correlation in the eastern Arabian Shield, Yemen: geochronological constraints. Journal of the Geological Society, London 155, 281–95.
Wilde, SA and Youssef, K (2002) A re-evaluation of the origin and setting of the Late Precambrian Hammamat Group based on SHRIMP U–Pb dating of detrital zircons from Gebel Umm Tawat, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of the Geological Society, London 159, 595–604.
Woolley, AR (2001) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World. Part 3: Africa. London/Bath: The Geological Society Publishing House, 372 pp.
Yang, S, Zhang, F and Wang, Z (2012) Grain size distribution and age population of detrital zircons from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River system, China. Chemical Geology 296–297, 26–38.
Yibas, B, Reimold, WU, Armstrong, R, Koeberl, C, Anhaeusser, CR and Phillips, D (2002) The tectonostratigraphy, granitoid geochronology and geological evolution of the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 34, 57–84.
Zhang, W, Pease, V, Whitehouse, MJ, El-Sankary, MM and Shalaby, MH (2019a) From the Libyan border to the Nile: Neoproterozoic magmatism and basement evolution of southern Egypt. International Geology Review 61, 2057–79.
Zhang, W, Pease, V, Whitehouse, MJ, El-Sankary, MM and Shalaby, HM (2019b) Pre-Neoproterozoic basement evolution of southwestern Egypt. International Geology Review 61, 1909–26.