Skip to main content Accessibility help

Chronology of early Cambrian biomineralization



Data on the first appearances of major animal groups with mineralized skeletons on the Siberian Platform and worldwide are revised and summarized herein with references to an improved carbon isotope stratigraphy and radiometric dating in order to reconstruct the Cambrian radiation (popularly known as the ‘Cambrian explosion’) with a higher precision and provide a basis for the definition of Cambrian Stages 2 to 4. The Lophotrochozoa and, probably, Chaetognatha were first among protostomians to achieve biomineralization during the Terreneuvian Epoch, mainly the Fortunian Age. Fast evolutionary radiation within the Lophotrochozoa was followed by radiation of the sclerotized and biomineralized Ecdysozoa during Stage 3. The first mineralized skeletons of the Deuterostomia, represented by echinoderms, appeared in the middle of Cambrian Stage 3. The fossil record of sponges and cnidarians suggests that they acquired biomineralized skeletons in the late Neoproterozoic, but diversification of both definite sponges and cnidarians was in parallel to that of bilaterians. The distribution of calcium carbonate skeletal mineralogies from the upper Ediacaran to lower Cambrian reflects fluctuations in the global ocean chemistry and shows that the Cambrian radiation occurred mainly during a time of aragonite and high-magnesium calcite seas.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Chronology of early Cambrian biomineralization
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Chronology of early Cambrian biomineralization
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Chronology of early Cambrian biomineralization
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence:


Hide All
Aksarina, N. A. 1968. Probivalvia-novyy klass drevneyshikh mollyuskov. [Probivalvia-a new class of ancient molluscs.] In Novye dannye po geologii i poleznym iskopaemym Zapadnoy Sibiri. [New data on geology and natural resources of western Siberia.] (ed. Selyatitskiy, G. A.), pp. 7786. Tomsk: Tomsk University Press (in Russian).
Allison, C. W. & Awramik, S. M. 1989. Organic-walled microfossils from earliest Cambrian or latest Proterozoic Tindir Group rocks, northwest Canada. Precambrian Research 43, 253–94.
Álvaro, J. J., Ahlberg, P., Babcock, L. E., Bordonaro, O. L., Choi, D. K., Cooper, R. A., Ergaliev, G. K., Gapp, I. W., Pour, M. G., Hughes, N. C., Jago, J. B., Korovnikov, I., Laurie, J. R., Lieberman, B. S., Paterson, J. R., Pegel, T. V., Popov, L. E., Rushton, A. W. A., Sukhov, S. S., Tortello, M. F., Zhou, Z. & Żylińska, A. In press. Global Cambrian trilobite palaeobiogeography assessed using parsimony analysis of endemicity. In Early Palaeozoic Palaeography and Biogeography (eds Harper, D. & Servais, T.). Geological Society of London, Special Publication.
Amthor, J. E., Grotzinger, J. P., Schröder, S., Bowring, S. A., Ramezani, J., Martin, M. W. & Matter, A. 2003. Extinction of Cloudina and Namacalathus at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in Oman. Geology 31, 431–4.
Antcliffe, J. B. & Brasier, M. D. 2008. Charnia at 50: developmental models for Ediacaran fronds. Palaeontology 51, 1126.
Astashkin, V. A., Pegel’, T. V., Repina, L. N., Belyaeva, G. A., Esakova, N. V., Rozanov, A. Yu., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Osadchaya, D. V. & Pakhomov, N. N. 1995. The Cambrian System of the Foldbelts of Russia and Mongolia. International Union of Geological Sciences publication no. 32, 132 pp.
Azmi, R. J. 1996. Evidence for soft tissue basal support in earliest Cambrian protoconodonts from the Lesser Himalaya: conodont function and affinity. In Contributions to the XV Indian Colloqium on Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy (eds Pandey, J., Azmi, R. J., Bhandari, A. & Dave, A.), pp. 457–61. Dehra Dun.
Azmi, R. J. & Paul, S. K. 2004. Discovery of Precambrian–Cambrian boundary protoconodonts from the Gangolihat Dolomite of Inner Kumaun Lesser Himalaya: implication on age and correlation. Current Science 86, 1653–60.
Babcock, L. E. & Peng, S. 2007. Cambrian chronostratigraphy: current state and future plans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 62–6.
Babcock, L. E., Peng, S. C., Geyer, G. & Shergold, J. H. 2005. Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geoscience Journal 9, 101–6.
Balthasar, U. 2008. Mummpikia gen. nov. and the origin of calcitic-shelled brachiopods. Palaeontology 51, 263–79.
Bengtson, S. 1968. The problematic genus Mobergella from the Lower Cambrian of the Baltic area. Lethaia 1, 325–51.
Bengtson, S. 1970. The Lower Cambrian fossil Tommotia. Lethaia 3, 363–92.
Bengtson, S. 1976. The structure of some Middle Cambrian conodonts, and the early evolution of conodont structure and function. Lethaia 9, 185206.
Bengtson, S. 1977. Aspects of problematic fossils in the early Palaeozoic. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Abstracts of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 415, 171.
Bengtson, S. 1983. The early history of the Conodonta. Fossils and Strata 15, 519.
Bengtson, S. 1985 Taxonomy of disarticulated fossils. Journal of Paleontology 59, 1350–8.
Bengtson, S. 1986. A new Mongolian species of the Lower Cambrian genus Camenella and the problem of scleritome-based taxonomy of the Tommotiida. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 60 (1–2), 4555.
Bengtson, S. 1992 a. The cap-shaped Cambrian fossil Maikhanella and the relationship between coeloscleritophorans and molluscs. Lethaia 25, 401–20.
Bengtson, S. 1992 b. Proterozoic and earliest Cambrian skeletal metazoans. In The Proterozoic Biosphere: A multidisciplinary study (eds Schopf, J. W. & Klein, C.), pp. 397435. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bengtson, S. 1994. The advent of animal skeletons. In Early Life on Earth. Nobel Symposium 84 (ed. Bengtson, S.), pp. 412–25. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bengtson, S. 2004. Early skeletal fossils. In Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Biological Revolutions (eds Lipps, J. H. & Waggoner, B. M.), pp. 6777. The Paleontological Society Papers 10. The Paleontological Society.
Bengtson, S. 2005. Mineralized skeletons and early animal evolution. In Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and development (ed. Briggs, D. E. G.), pp. 101–24. New Haven: Yale Peabody Museum.
Bengtson, S. & Conway Morris, S. 1992. Early radiation of biomineralizing phyla. In Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa (eds Lipps, J. H. & Signor, P. W.), pp. 447–81. New York: Plenum Press.
Bengtson, S., Conway Morris, S., Cooper, B. J., Jell, P. A. & Runnegar, B. N. 1990. Early Cambrian fossils from South Australia. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 9, 1364.
Bengtson, S., Fedorov, A. B., Missarzhevsky, V. V., Rozanov, A. Yu., Zhegallo, E. A. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1987. Tumulduria incomperta and the case for Tommotian trilobites. Lethaia 20, 361–70.
Bengtson, S. & Hou, X. 2001. The integument of Cambrian chancelloriids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46, 122.
Bengtson, S., Matthews, S. C. & Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1986. The Cambrian netlike fossil Microdictyon. In Problematic Fossil Taxa (eds Hoffman, A. & Nitecki, M. H.), pp. 97115. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bengtson, S. & Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1981. Coeloscleritophora – a major group of enigmatic Cambrian metazoans. In Short Papers for the Second International Symposium on the Cambrian System (ed. Taylor, M. E.), pp. 19–21.
Bengtson, S. & Yue, Z. 1997. Fossilized metazoan embryos from the earliest Cambrian. Science 277, 1645–8.
Bergström, J. 1973. Classification of olenellid trilobites and some Balto-Scandian species. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 53, 283314.
Bergström, J. 2010. The earliest arthropods and other animals. In Darwin's Heritage Today. Proceedings of the Darwin 200 International Conference (ed. Long, M.), pp. 2942. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
Bergström, J. & Hou, X. 2001. Cambrian Onychophora or Xenusians. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240, 237–45.
Billings, E. 1871. On some new species of Palaeozoic fossils. Canadian Naturalist 6, 213223, 240.
Botting, J. P. & Butterfield, N. J. 2005. Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, 1554–9.
Bowring, S., Grotzinger, J., Condon, D., Ramezani, J., Newall, M. & Allen, P. 2007. Geochronologic constraints of the chronostratigraphic framework of the Neoproterozoic Huqf Supergroup, Sultanate of Oman. American Journal of Science 307, 1097–145.
Brasier, M. D. 1989 a. China and the Palaeotethyan belt (India, Pakistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia). In The Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary (eds Cowie, J. W. & Brasier, M. D.), pp. 4074. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Brasier, M. D. 1989 b. Towards a biostratigraphy of the earliest skeletal biotas. In The Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary (eds Cowie, J. W. & Brasier, M. D.), pp. 117–65. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Brasier, M. D. 1989 c. Sections in England and their correlation. In The Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary (eds Cowie, J. W. & Brasier, M. D.), pp. 82104. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Brasier, M. D., Corfield, R. M., Derry, L. A., Rozanov, A. Yu. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1994 a. Multiple δ13C excursions spanning the Cambrian explosion to the Botomian crisis in Siberia. Geology 22, 455–8.
Brasier, M. D., Green, O. & Shields, G. 1997. Ediacarian sponge spicule clusters from southwestern Mongolia and the origins of the Cambrian fauna. Geology 25, 303–6.
Brasier, M. D., Khomentovsky, V. V. & Corfield, R. M. 1993. Stable isotopic calibration of the earliest skeletal fossil assemblages in eastern Siberia (Precambrian–Cambrian boundary). Terra Nova 5, 225–32.
Brasier, M. D., Magaritz, M., Corfield, R., Luo, H., Wu, X., Ouyang, L., Jiang, Z., Hamdi, B., He, T. & Frazier, A. G. 1990. The carbon- and oxygen-isotopic record of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary interval in China and Iran and their correlation. Geological Magazine 127, 319–32.
Brasier, M. D., Rozanov, A. Yu., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Corfield, R. M. & Derry, L. A. 1994 b. A carbon isotope reference scale for the Lower Cambrian succession in Siberia: report of IGCP project 303. Geological Magazine 131, 767–83.
Brasier, M. D., Shields, G., Kuleshov, V. N. & Zhegallo, E. A. 1996. Integrated chemo- and biostratigraphic calibration of early animal evolution: Neoproterozoic–early Cambrian of southwest Mongolia. Geological Magazine 133, 445–85.
Brasier, M. D. & Singh, P. 1987. Microfossils and Precambrian–Cambrian boundary stratigraphy at Maldeota, Lesser Himalaya. Geological Magazine 124, 323–45.
Brasier, M. D. & Sukhov, S. S. 1998. The falling amplitude of carbon isotopic oscillations through the Lower to Middle Cambrian: northern Siberia data. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 35, 353–73.
Brooks, B.-G., Crowley, J., Bowring, S., Cervato, C. & Jin, Y. 2006. A new U/Pb date for the basal Meishucun section and implications for the timing of the Cambrian explosion. The Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting, University of Sheffield, Programme with abstracts, p. 18.
Budd, G. E. 1997. Stem-group arthropods from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland. In Arthropod Relationships (eds Fortey, R. A. & Thomas, R. H.), pp. 125–38. London: Chapman and Hall.
Budd, G. E. 2001. Tardigrades as ‘stem-group arthropods’: The evidence from the Cambrian fauna. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240, 265–79.
Budd, G. E. 2003. The Cambrian fossil record and the origin of the phyla. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43, 157–65.
Budd, G. E. 2008. The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363, 1425–34.
Budd, G. E. & Jensen, S. 2000. A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla. Biological Reviews 75, 253–95.
Budd, G. E. & Jensen, S. 2003. The limitations of the fossil record and the dating of the origin of the Bilateria. In Telling the Evolutionary Time: Molecular Clocks and the Fossil Record (eds Donoghue, P. C. J. & Smith, M. P.), pp. 166–89. London: Taylor and Francis.
Butterfield, N. J. 2003. Exceptional fossil preservation and the Cambrian Explosion. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43, 166–77.
Chen, M.-G. 1982. [The new knowledge of the fossil assemblages from Maidiping section, Emei County, Sichuan with reference to the Sinian-Cambrian boundary]. Scientia Geologica Sinica 1982, 253–62 (in Chinese).
Chen, J.-Y., Hou, X.-G. & Lu, H. 1989. Early Cambrian netted scale-bearing worm-like sea animal. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 28 (1), 1227.
Chen, J.-Y. & Huang, D.-Y. 2002. A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath (arrow worm). Science 298, 187.
Chen, J.-Y. & Huang, D.-Y., Peng, Q.-Q., Chi, H.-M., Wang, X.-Q. & Feng, M. 2003. The first tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, 8314–18.
Chen, J.-Y. & Zhou, G.-Q. 1997. Biology of the Chengjiang fauna. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural History (Taichung, Taiwan, China) 10, 11105.
Chen, J.-Y., Zhou, G.-Q. & Ramsköld, L. 1995. The Cambrian lobopodian Microdictyon sinicum. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Science 5, 193.
Compston, W., Zhang, Z., Cooper, J. A., Ma, G. & Jenkins, R. J. F. 2008. Further SHRIMP geochronology on the early Cambrian of South China. American Journal of Science 308, 399420.
Condon, D., Zhu, M., Bowring, S., Wang, W., Yang, A. & Jin, Y. 2005. U–Pb ages from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China. Science 308, 95–8.
Conway Morris, S. 1986. The community structure of the middle Cambrian phyllopod bed (Burgess Shale). Palaeontology 29, 423–67.
Conway Morris, S. 1989. South-eastern Newfoundland and adjacent areas (Avalon Zone). In The Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary (eds Cowie, J. W. & Brasier, M. D.), pp. 739. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Conway Morris, S. 1993. Ediacaran-like fossils in Cambrian Burgess shale-type faunas of North America. Palaeontology 36, 593635.
Conway Morris, S. 1997. The cuticular structure of the 495-Myr-old type species of the fossil worm Palaeoscolex, P. piscatorum (?Priapulida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 119, 6982.
Conway Morris, S. 2006. Darwin's dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian “explosion”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 361, 1069–83.
Conway Morris, S. & Caron, J. B. 2007. Halwaxiids and the early evolution of the Lophotrochozoans. Science 315, 1255–8.
Conway Morris, S. & Chapman, A. J. 1997. Mobergellans from the Lower Cambrian of Mongolia, Sweden, and the United States: molluscs or opercula of incertae sedis? Journal of Paleontology 71, 968–85.
Conway Morris, S. & Chen, M. 1990. Tommotiids from the Lower Cambrian of South China. Journal of Paleontology 64, 169–84.
Conway Morris, S. & Chen, M. 1991. Cambroclaves and paracarinachitids, early skeletal problematica from the Lower Cambrian of South China. Palaeontology 34, 357–97.
Conway Morris, S. & Chen, M. 1992. Carinachitids, hexangulaconulariids, and Punctatus: problematic metazoans from the early Cambrian of South China. Journal of Paleontology 66, 384406.
Conway Morris, S., Crampton, J. S., Xiao, B. & Chapman, A. J. 1997. Lower Cambrian cambroclaves (incertae sedis) from Xinjiang, China, with comments on the morphological variability of sclerites. Palaeontology 40, 167–89.
Conway Morris, S., McIlroy, D. & Rushton, A. W. 1998. Lower Cambrian halkieriids from Oxfordshire, U.K. Geological Magazine 135, 501–8.
Conway Morris, S. & Peel, J. S. 1995. Articulated halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland and their role in early protostome evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 347, 305–58.
Conway Morris, S. & Peel, J. S. 2008. The earliest annelids: Lower Cambrian polychaetes from the Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, Peary Land, North Greenland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53, 137–48.
Conway Morris, S. & Peel, J. S. 2010. New palaeoscolecidan worms from the lower Cambrian: Sirius Passet, Latham Shale and Kinzers Shale. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55, 141–56.
Conway Morris, S., Peel, J. S., Higgins, A. K., Soper, N. J. & Davis, N. C. 1987. A Burgess shale-like fauna from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland. Nature 326, 181–3.
Conway Morris, S. & Robison, R. A. 1986. Middle Cambrian Priapulids and other soft-bodied fossils from Utah and Spain. Paleontological Contributions from the University of Kansas Papers 117, 122.
Crimes, T. P. 1987. Trace fossils and correlation of late Precambrian and early Cambrian strata. Geological Magazine 124, 97119.
Daily, B. 1976. Novye dannye ob osnovanii kembriya v Yuzhnoy Avstralii. [New data on the base of the Cambrian in South Australia.] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya 1976 (3), 4552.
Daily, B. 1990. Cambrian stratigraphy of Yorke Peninsula. Geological Society of Australia, Special Publication 16, 215–29.
Debrenne, F., Gangloff, R. A. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1990. Archaeocyatha from the Krol-Tal succession (Lesser Himalaya): an invalid record. Geological Magazine 127, 361–2.
Debrenne, F. M., Lafuste, J. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1990. Coralomorphes et spongiomorphes à l'aube du Cambrien. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 12, 1739.
Debrenne, F. M., Maidanskaya, I. D. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1999. Faunal migrations of archaeocyaths and early Cambrian plate dynamics. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 170, 189–94.
Debrenne, F. M. & Reitner, J. 2001. Sponges, cnidarians, and ctenophores. In The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation (eds Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Riding, R.), pp. 301325. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dickson, J. A. D. 2002. Fossil echinoderms as monitor of the Mg/Ca ratio of Phanerozoic oceans. Science 298, 1222–4.
Dickson, J. A. D. 2004. Echinoderm skeletal preservation: Calcite-aragonite seas and the Mg/Ca ratio of Phanerozoic oceans. Journal of Sedimentary Research 74, 355–65.
Dillard, K. A., Pope, M. C., Coniglio, M., Hasiotis, S. T. & Lieberman, B. S. 2007. Stable isotope geochemistry of the lower Cambrian Sekwi Formation, Northwest Territories, Canada: implications for ocean chemistry and secular curve generation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 256, 174–94.
Ding, W. & Qian, Y. 1988. Late Sinian to Early Cambrian small shelly fossils from Yangjiaping, Shimen, Hunan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 5 (1), 3955 (in Chinese).
Doguzhaeva, L. A., Mapes, R. H. & Mutvei, H. 2002. Chaetognath grasping spines from the Upper Mississippian of Arkansas (USA). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47, 421–30.
Dong, X.-P. 2004. On the evolution and histology of some Cambrian protoconodonts, paraconodonts and primitive euconodonts. Science in China, Series D, Earth Sciences 47 (7), 577–84.
Dong, X.-P., Bengtson, S., Gostling, N. J., Cunningham, J. A., Walossek, D., Harvey, T. H. P., Kouchinsky, A., Val'kov, A. K., Repetski, J. E., Stampanoni, M. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2010. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans. Palaeontology 53, 1291–314.
Dong, X.-P., Donoghue, P. C. J., Cheng, H. & Liu, J. 2004. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian Period of Hunan, south China. Nature 427, 237–40.
Dong, X.-P., Donoghue, P. C. J., Cunningham, J. A., Liu, J. & Cheng, H. 2005. The anatomy, affinity, and phylogenetic significance of Markuelia. Evolution & Development 7, 468–82.
Donoghue, P. C. J. 2002. Evolution of development of the vertebrate dermal and oral skeletons: unraveling concepts, regulatory theories, and homologies. Paleobiology 28, 474507.
Donoghue, P. C. J., Forey, P. L. & Aldridge, R. J. 2000. Conodont affinity and chordate phylogeny. Biological Reviews 75, 191251.
Donoghue, P. C. J. & Sansom, I. J. 2002. Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization. Microscopy Research and Technique 59, 352–72.
Donoghue, P. C. J., Sansom, I. J. & Downs, J. P. 2006. Early evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues and cellular interactions, and the canalization of skeletal development. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 306B, 278–94.
Dunn, C. W., Hejnol, A., Matus, D. Q., Pang, K., Browne, W. E., Smith, S. A., Seaver, E., Rouse, G. W., Obst, M., Edgecombe, G. D., Sørensen, M. V., Haddock, S. H. D., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Okusu, A., Kristensen, R. M., Wheeler, W. C., Martindale, M. Q. & Giribet, G. 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452, 745–9.
Durham, J. W. 1971. The fossil record and the origin of the Deuterostomata. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, Part H, 1104–32.
Dutro, J. T. Jr., Palmer, A. R., Repetski, J. E. & Brosgé, W. P. 1984. Middle Cambrian fossils from the Doonerak Anticlinorium, Central Brooks Range, Alaska. Journal of Paleontology 58, 1364–71.
Dzik, J. 1994. Evolution of “small shelly fossils” assemblages of the Early Paleozoic. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 39, 247313.
Dzik, J. 2010. Brachiopod identity of the alleged monoplacophoran ancestors of cephalopods. Malacologia 52, 97113.
Edgecombe, G. D. 2009. Palaeontological and molecular evidence linking Arthropods, Onychophorans, and other Ecdysozoa. Evolution: Education and Outreach 2, 178–90.
Elicki, O. 1994. Lower Cambrian carbonates from eastern Germany: palaeontology, stratigraphy and palaeogeography. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 191/1, 6993.
Elicki, O. & Wotte, T. 2003. Cambroclaves from the Cambrian of Sardinia (Italy) and Germany: constraints for the architecture of western Gondwana and the palaeogeographical and palaeoecological potential of cambroclaves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 195, 5571.
Esakova, N. V. & Zhegallo, E. A. 1996. Biostratigrafiya i fauna nizhnego kembriya Mongolii. [Biostratigraphy and fauna of the Lower Cambrian of Mongolia.] In Transactions of the Joint Russian-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition 46 (ed. Rozanov, A. Yu.), 216 pp. (in Russian).
Fatka, O., Kraft, P. & Szabad, M. 2011. Shallow-water occurrence of Wiwaxia in the middle Cambrian of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica doi:10.4202/app.2009.0052.
Fedonkin, M. A. & Waggoner, B. M. 1997. The Vendian fossil Kimberella: The oldest mollusk. Nature 388, 868–71.
Fedorov, A. B. 1986. Novye trubchatye problematiki iz stratotipa tommotskogo yarusa. [New tubular problematics from stratotype of the Tommotian Stage]. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1986 (3), 110–2. (English translation: Paleontological Journal 20(3), 103–5.)
Fedorov, A. B. & Shishkin, B. B. 1984. Nizhnyaya granitsa kembriya na severe Sibirskoj platformy. [Lower boundary of the Cambrian in north of the Siberian Platform.] In Problemy yarusnogo raschleneniya sistem fanerozoya Sibiri. [Problems of Stage subdivision of Phanerozoic Systems of Siberia] (ed. Krasnov, V. I.), pp. 514. Novosibirsk: SNIIGGiMS (in Russian).
Fisher, D. W. 1962. Other small conoidal shells. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Miscellanea (ed. Moore, R. C.), W98W143. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.
Flügel, E. & Singh, I. B. 2003. Stromatoporoid-grade and other sponge fossils from the upper Krol Formation of the Lesser Himalaya (India): implications for the biotic evolution around the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary interval. Facies 49, 351–72.
Gehling, J. & Rigby, J. K. 1996. Long expected sponges from the Neoproterozoic Ediacara fauna of South Australia. Journal of Paleontology 70, 185–95.
Germs, G. L. 1972. New shelly fossils from the Nama Group, South West Africa. American Journal of Science 272, 752–61.
Geyer, G. & Elicki, O. 1995. The Lower Cambrian trilobites from the Görlitz Synclinorium (Germany) – review and new results. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 69 (1/2), 87119.
Geyer, G. & Landing, E. 2004. A unified Lower–Middle Cambrian chronostratigraphy for West Gondwana. Acta Geologica Polonica 54, 179218.
Golubev, S. N. 1976. Ontogenetic changes and evolutionary trends in Early Cambrian spiral gastropods of the superfamily Pelagiellacea. Paleontological Journal 10 (2), 143–9.
Goryansky, V. Y. 1977. Pervaya nakhodka ostatkov gubki v nizhnem kembrii vostochnoj Sibiri. [The first find of sponge remains in the Lower Cambrian of eastern Siberia]. Ezhegodnik Vsesoyuznogo Paleontologicheskogo Obschestva 20, 274–6.
Grant, S. W. F. 1990. Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic. American Journal of Science 290 (A), 261–94.
Gravestock, D. I. & Shergold, J. H. 2001. Australian Early and Middle Cambrian sequence biostratigraphy with implications for species diversity and correlation. In The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation (eds Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Riding, R.), pp. 105136. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gravestock, D. I., Alexander, E. M., Demidenko, Yu. E., Esakova, N. V., Holmer, L. E., Jago, J. B., Lin, T., Melnikova, L. M., Parkhaev, P. Yu., Rozanov, A. Yu., Ushatinskaya, G. T., Zang, W., Zhegallo, E. A. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 2001. The Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Stansbury Basin, South Australia. Transactions of the Palaeontological Institute 282. Moscow: IAPC Nauka/Interperiodica, 344 pp.
Grigor'eva, N. V., Melnikova, L. M. & Pel'man, Yu. L. 1983. Brakhiopody, ostrakody (bradoriidy) i problematika iz stratotipicheskogo rajona yarusov nizhnego kembriya. [Brachiopods, ostracods (bradoriids) and problematics from the stratotype region of Lower Cambrian Stages]. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1983 (3), 54–8. (English translation: Paleontological Journal 17(3), 51–6).
Grotzinger, J. P., Adams, E. & Schröder, S. 2005. Microbial-metazoan reefs of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group (ca. 550–543 Ma), Namibia. Geological Magazine 142, 499517.
Grotzinger, J. P., Bowring, S. A., Saylor, B. Z. & Kaufman, A. J. 1995. Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution. Science 270, 598604.
Grotzinger, J. P., Watters, W. A. & Knoll, A. H. 2000. Calcified metazoans in thrombolite-stromatolite reefs of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group, Namibia. Paleobiology 26, 334–59.
Halanych, K. M. 2004. The new view of animal phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35, 229–56.
Hall, J. 1847. Paleontology of New-York. Volume I. Containing descriptions of the organic remains of the Lower Division of the New-York system (equivalent to the Lower Silurian rocks of Europe). Albany: C. Van Benthuysen, 338 pp.
Hall, J. 1876. Illustrations of Devonian Fossils: Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, Crustacea and Corals of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton and Chemung Groups. 39 pls. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Company.
Hamdi, B. 1995. Precambrian–Cambrian deposits in Iran. In Treatise on the Geology of Iran vol. 20 (ed. Hushmandzadeh, A.). Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran, 535 pp. (In Persian)
Hamdi, B., Brasier, M. D. & Jiang, Z. 1989. Earliest skeletal fossils from Precambrian–Cambrian boundary strata, Elburz Mountains, Iran. Geological Magazine 126, 283–9.
Hardie, L. A. & Stanley, S. M. 1997. Secular biotic trends in skeletal secretion and sedimentary carbonate production resulting from oscillations in seawater chemistry driven by plate tectonics. Eos (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union) 78, S179.
Harvey, T. H. P. 2010. Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules. Biology Letters 6, 834–7.
Harvey, T. H. P., Dong, X. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2010. Are palaeoscolecids ancestral ecdysozoans? Evolution & Development 12, 177200.
Hinz, I. 1987. The Lower Cambrian microfauna of Comley and Rushton, Shropshire/England. Palaeontographica A, 198 (1–3), 41100.
Hinz-Schallreuter, I., Gozalo, R. & Liñán, E. 2008. New bradorid arthropods from the Lower Cambrian of Spain. Micropalaeontology 53, 497510.
Hollingsworth, J. S. 2005. The earliest occurrence of trilobites and brachiopods in the Cambrian of Laurentia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220, 153–65.
Hollingsworth, J. S. 2007. Fallotaspidoid trilobite assemblage (Lower Cambrian) from the Esmeralda Basin (western Nevada, U.S.A.): the oldest trilobites from Laurentia. Memoirs of the Australasian Association of Palaeontologists 32, 123–40.
Hollingsworth, J. S. 2008. The first trilobites in Laurentia and elsewhere. In Advances in Trilobite Research (eds Rábano, I., Gozalo, R. & García-Bellido, D.), pp. 171–7. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero no. 9. Madrid: Instituto Geológico y Minero de España.
Holm, G. 1893. Sveriges Kambrisk-Siluriska Hyolithidae och Conularidae. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Afhandlingar och Uppsatser 112, 1172.
Holmer, L. E., Popov, L. E., Koneva, S. P. & Bassett, M. G. 2001. Cambrian-early Ordovician brachiopods from Malyi Karatau, the western Balkhash region, and Tien Shan, central Asia. Special Papers in Palaeontology 65, 1180.
Holmer, L. E., Skovsted, C. B., Brock, G. A., Valentine, J. & Paterson, J. R. 2008. The origin of linguliform brachiopods from sessile Early Cambrian tannuolinids. Biology Letters 4, 724–8.
Hou, X.-G. & Bergström, J. 1994. Palaeoscolecid worms may be nematomorphs rather than annelids. Lethaia 27, 11–7.
Hou, X.-G. & Bergström, J. 1995. Cambrian lobopodians-ancestors of extant onychophorans? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 114, 319.
Hou, X.-G., Ma, X.-Y., Zhao, J. & Bergström, J. 2004. The lobopodian Paucipodia inermis from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, Yunnan, China. Lethaia 37, 235–44.
Hou, X.-G., Siveter, D. J., Williams, M. & Feng, X. H. 2002. A monograph of the bradoriid arthropods from the Lower Cambrian of SW China. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 92, 347409 (reprinted in 93, Part 1, with improved illustrations).
Hou, X.-G., Siveter, D. J., Williams, M., Walossek, D. & Bergström, J. 1996. Appendages of the arthropod Kunmingella from the Early Cambrian of China: its bearing on the systematic position of the Bradoriida and the fossil record of the Ostracoda. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351, 1131–45.
Hou, X.-G., Williams, M., Siveter, D. J., Siveter, D. J., Aldridge, R. J. & Sansom, R. S. 2010. Soft-part anatomy of the Early Cambrian bivalved arthropods Kunyangella and Kunmingella: significance for the phylogenetic relationships of Bradoriida. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277, 1835–41.
Hu, S. 2005. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota from Eastern Yunnan, China. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen 7, 1197.
Hughes, N. C., Peng, S., Bhargava, O. N., Ahluwalia, A. D., Walia, S., Myrow, P. M. & Parcha, S. K. 2005. Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Tal Group, Lesser Himalaya, India, and early Tsanglangpuan (late early Cambrian) trilobites from the Nigali Dhar syncline. Geological Magazine 142, 5780.
Isachsen, C. E., Bowring, S. A., Landing, E. & Samson, S. D. 1994. New constraint on the division of Cambrian time. Geology 22, 496–8.
Ivantsov, A. Yu. 1990. Pervye nakhodki fillokarid v nizhnem kembrii Yakutii. [First finds of phyllocarids in the Lower Cambrian of Yakutia]. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1990, 130132.
Ivantsov, A. Yu., Malahovskaya, Ya. E. & Serezhnikova, E. A. 2004. Some problematic fossils from the Vendian of Southeastern White Sea Region. Paleontological Journal 38, 19 (translated from Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 2004(1), 3–9).
Ivantsov, A. Yu., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Leguta, A. V., Krasilov, V. A., Melnikova, L. M. & Ushatinskaya, G. T. 2005. Palaeoecology of the Early Cambrian Sinsk biota from the Siberian Platform. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220, 6988.
Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3, 1128.
Jago, J. B., Sun, X. & Zang, W. 2002. Correlation within early Palaeozoic basins of eastern South Australia. South Australia. Department of Primary Industries and Resources. Report Book 2002/033, 22 pp.
Jago, J. B., Zang, W., Sun, X., Brock, G. A., Paterson, J. R. & Skovsted, C. B. 2006. A review of the Cambrian biostratigraphy of South Australia. Palaeoworld 15, 406–23.
Janussen, D., Steiner, M. & Zhu, M.-Y. 2002. New well-preserved scleritomes of Chancelloriidae from the Early Cambrian of Yuanshan Formation (Chengjiang, China) and the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Shale (Utah, USA) and paleobiological implications. Journal of Paleontology 76, 596606.
Jensen, S., Gehling, J. & Droser, M. 1998. Ediacara-type fossils in Cambrian sediments. Nature 393, 567–9.
Jiang, Z. 1980. [The Meishucun Stage and fauna of the Jinning County, Yunnan.] Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Series I 2:1, 7592. (In Chinese with an English summary)
Johnston, P. A., Johnston, K. J., Collom, C. J., Powell, W. G. & Pollock, R. J. 2009. Palaeontology and depositional environments of ancient brine seeps in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale at The Monarch, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 277, 86105.
Jones, P. J. & McKenzie, K. G. 1980. Queensland Middle Cambrian Bradoriida (Crustacea): new taxa, palaeobiogeography and biological affinities. Alcheringa 4, 203–25.
Karatajute-Talimaa, V. 1997. Taxonomy of loganiid thelodonts. Modern Geology 21 (1/2), 115.
Karlova, G. A. 1987. First findings of skeletal fauna in the Turkut Formation of the Olenyok uplift. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 292, 204–5.
Karlova, G. A. & Vodanyuk, S. A. 1985. Novye dannye o perekhodnykh k kembriyu otlozheniyakh bassejna r. Khorbosuonki (Olenyokskoe podnyatie). [New data on the deposits transitional to the Cambrian from the Khorbosuonka River basin (Olenyok Uplift)]. In Stratigrafiya pozdnego dokembriya i rannego paleozoya Sibiri. Vend i rifej. [Stratigraphy of the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic of Siberia. Vendian and Riphean.] (ed. Khomentovsky, V. V.), pp. 313. Novosibirsk: Institut geologii i geofiziki SO AN SSSR (in Russian).
Kaufman, A. J., Knoll, A. H. & Awramik, S. M. 1992. Biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic correlation of Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions: Upper Tindir Group, northwestern Canada, as a test case. Geology 20, 181–5.
Kaufman, A. J., Knoll, A. H., Semikhatov, M. A., Grotzinger, J. P., Jacobsen, S. B. & Adams, W. 1996. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic–Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia. Geological Magazine 133, 509–33.
Kemp, A. 2002 a. Amino acid residues in conodont elements. Journal of Paleontology 76, 518–28.
Kemp, A. 2002 b. Hyaline tissue of thermally unaltered conodont elements and the enamel of vertebrates. Alcheringa 26, 2336.
Kheraskova, T. N., Didenko, A. N., Bush, V. A. & Volozh, Yu. A. 2003. The Vendian–early Paleozoic history of the continental margin of eastern Paleogondwana, Paleoasian ocean, and Central Asian foldbelt. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences 5, 165–84.
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Gibsher, A. S. 1996. The Neoproterozoic–lower Cambrian in northern Govi-Altay, western Mongolia: regional setting, lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Geological Magazine 133, 371–90.
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Karlova, G. A. 1991. Novye dannye po korrelyatsii vend-kembrijskikh otlozhenij vostochnoj i perekhodnoj fatsial'nykh oblastej yuzhnoj Yakutii. [New data on correlation of the Vendian-Cambrian deposits of eastern and transitional facial belts of southern Yakutia.] In Pozdnij dokembrij i rannij paleozoj Sibiri. Sibirskaya platforma i ee obramlenie. [Late Precambrian and early Palaeozoic of Siberia. Siberian Platform and its margins.] (ed. Khomentovsky, V. V.), pp. 344. Novosibirsk: OIGGM SO AN SSSR Publishing House (in Russian).
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Karlova, G. A. 1993. Biostratigraphy of the Vendian–Cambrian beds and lower Cambrian boundary in Siberia. Geological Magazine 130, 2945.
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Karlova, G. A. 2002. Granitsa nemakit-daldynskogo i tommotskoga yarusov (vend–kembrij) Sibiri. [The boundary between Nemakit-Daldynian and Tommotian stages (Vendian–Cambrian) of Siberia.] Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 10, 1334.
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Karlova, G. A. 2005. The Tommotian Stage base as the Cambrian lower boundary in Siberia. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 13, 2134.
Khomentovsky, V. V. & Repina, L. N. 1965. The Lower Cambrian Stratotype Section of Siberia. Moscow: Nauka, 200 pp.
Khomentovsky, V. V., Val'kov, A. K. & Karlova, G. A. 1990. Novye dannye po biostratigrafii perekhodnykh vend-kembrijskikh sloev v bassejne srednego techeniya r. Aldan. [New data on the biostratigraphy of transitional Vendian–Cambrian strata in the middle reaches of the River Aldan.] In Pozdnij dokembrij i rannij paleozoj Sibiri. Voprosy regional'noj stratigrafii. [Late Precambrian and early Palaeozoic of Siberia. Problems in regional stratigraphy.] (eds Khomentovsky, V. V. & Gibsher, A. S.), pp. 357. Novosibirsk: Institut geologii i geofiziki SO AN SSSR (in Russian).
Khomentovsky, V. V., Val'kov, A. K., Karlova, G. A. & Nuzhnov, S. V. 1983. Opornyj razrez dokembrijsko-kembrijskikh otlozhenij r. Gonam. [Key-section of the Precambrian-Cambrian deposits of River Gonam]. In Pozdnij dokembrij i rannij paleozoj Sibiri. Vendskie otlozheniya. [Late Precambrian and early Palaeozoic of Siberia. Vendian deposits.] (eds Khomentovsky, V. V., Yakshin, M. S. & Karlova, G. A.), pp. 2944. Novosibirsk: Institut geologii i geofiziki SO AN SSSR (in Russian).
Kiel, S. & Dando, P. R. 2009. Chaetopterid tubes from vent and seep sites: implications for fossil record and evolutionary history of vent and seep annelids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54, 443–8.
Kiessling, W., Aberhan, M. & Villier, L. 2008. Phanerozoic trends in skeletal mineralogy driven by mass extinctions. Nature Geoscience 1, 527–30.
Kimura, H. & Watanabe, Y. 2001. Oceanic anoxia at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Geology 29, 995–8.
Kimura, H., Matsumoto, R., Kakuwa, Y., Hamdi, B. & Zibaseresht, H. 1997. The Vendian–Cambrian δ13C record, North Iran: evidence for overturning of the ocean before the Cambrian explosion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 147, E1E7.
Kirschvink, J. L., Magaritz, M., Ripperdan, R. L., Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Rozanov, A. Yu. 1991. The Precambrian–Cambrian boundary: magnetostratigraphy and carbon isotopes resolve correlation problems between Siberia, Morocco, and South China. GSA Today 1, 6971, 87, 91.
Knoll, A. H., Grotzinger, J. P., Kaufman, A. J. & Kolosov, P. 1995. Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia. Precambrian Research 73, 251–70.
Korshunov, V. I., Repina, L. N. & Sysoev, V. A. 1969. K stroeniyu pestrotsvetnoj svity vostoka Aldanskoj anteklizy. [To the structure of the Pestrotsvet Formaton of eastern Aldan anticline.] Geologiya i Geofizika 10, 1821.
Kouchinsky, A. 2000. Skeletal microstructures of hyoliths from the Early Cambrian of Siberia. Alcheringa 24, 6581.
Kouchinsky, A., Bengtson, S., Feng, W., Kutygin, R. & Val'kov, A. K. 2009. The Lower Cambrian fossil Anabaritids: affinities, occurrences and systematics. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 7, 241–98.
Kouchinsky, A., Bengtson, S., Missarzhevsky, V. V., Pelechaty, S., Torssander, P. & Val'kov, A. K. 2001. Carbon isotope stratigraphy and the problem of a pre-Tommotian Stage in Siberia. Geological Magazine 138, 387–96.
Kouchinsky, A., Bengtson, S., Pavlov, V., Runnegar, B., Val'kov, A. K. & Young, E. 2005. Pre-Tommotian age of the lower Pestrotsvet Formation in the Selinde section on the Siberian platform: carbon isotopic evidence. Geological Magazine 142, 319–25.
Kouchinsky, A., Bengtson, S., Pavlov, V. E., Runnegar, B., Torssander, P., Young, E. & Ziegler, K. 2007. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Precambrian–Cambrian Sukharikha River section, northwestern Siberian platform. Geological Magazine 144, 110.
Kruse, P. D., Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & James, N. P. 1995. Primordial metazoan-calcimicrobial reefs: Tommotian (Early Cambrian) of the Siberian Platform. Palaios 10, 291321.
Landing, E. 1980. Late Cambrian–Early Ordovician macrofaunas and phosphatic microfaunas, St. John Group, New Brunswick. Journal of Paleontology 54, 752–61.
Landing, E. 1984. Skeleton of lapworthellids and the suprageneric classification of tommotiids (Early and Middle Cambrian phosphatic problematica). Journal of Paleontology 58, 1380–98.
Landing, E. 1995. Upper Placentian–Branchian Series of Mainland Nova Scotia (Middle–Upper Lower Cambrian): faunas, paleoenvironments, and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology 69, 475–95.
Landing, E. 2004. Precambrian–Cambrian boundary interval deposition and the marginal platform of the Avalon microcontinent. Journal of Geodynamics 37, 411–35.
Landing, E., Bowring, S. A., Davidek, K. L., Westrop, S. R., Geyer, G. & Heldmaier, W. 1998. Duration of the Early Cambrian: U–Pb ages of volcanic ashes from Avalon and Gondwana. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 35, 329–38.
Landing, E., English, A. & Keppie, J. D. 2010. Cambrian origin of all skeletalized metazoan phyla-discovery of Earth's oldest bryozoans (Upper Cambrian, southern Mexico). Geology 38, 547–50.
Landing, E., Myrow, P. M., Benus, A. & Narbonne, G. M. 1989. The Placentian Series: appearance of the oldest skeletalized faunas in southeastern Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology 63, 739–69.
Landing, E., Nowlan, G. S. & Fletcher, T. P. 1980. A microfauna associated with Early Cambrian faunas of the Callavia Zone, northern Antigonish Highlands, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 400–18.
Landing, E., Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G. & Moczydlowska-Vidal, M. 2007. Global Standard names for the lowermost Cambrian series and stage. Episodes 30, 287–9.
Landing, E. & Westrop, S. R. 1998. Revisions in stratigraphic nomenclature of the Cambrian of Avalonian North America and comparisons with Avalonian Britain. In Avalon 1997 – The Cambrian Standard. Third International Field Conference of the Cambrian Chronostratigraphy Working Group and I.G.C.P. Project 366 (Ecological Aspects of the Cambrian Radiation) (eds E. Landing, E. & Westrop, S. R.), pp. 76–87. New York State Museum Bulletin 492.
Landing, E. & Westrop, S. R. 2004. Environmental patterns in the origin and evolution and diversification loci of Early Cambrian skeletalized Metazoa: evidence from the Avalon microcontinent. In Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Biological Revolutions (eds Lipps, J. H. & Waggoner, B. M.), pp. 93105. Paleontological Society Papers 10. The Paleontological Society.
Laurie, J. R. 1986. Phosphatic fauna of the Early Cambrian Todd River Dolomite, Amadeus Basin, central Australia. Alcheringa 10, 431–54.
Lendzion, K. 1972. Stratigrafia kambru dolnego na obszarze Podlasia. Institut Geologiczny, Biuletyn 233. Z badan stratigraficzno-paleontologicznych w Polsce, t. VI, 69157.
Lendzion, K. 1978. Charakterystyka stratygraficzno-litologiczna wendu i kambru dolnego. In Wybrane problemy stratigrafii i litologii wendu i dolnego kambru na platformie prekambryjskiej w Polsce. Prace Instytutu Geologicznego 90, 3641.
Lendzion, K. 1983. Trilobita. In Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform (eds Volkova, N. A., Gnilovskaya, M. B., Lendzion, K., Kirjanov, V. V., Palij, V. M., Pashkyavichene, L. T., Piskun, L. V., Posti, E., Rozanov, A. Yu., Urbanek, A., Fedonkin, M. A. & Yankauskas, T. V.), pp. 95102. Moscow: Nauka.
Li, G. 2009. Early Cambrian stem-group brachiopods from South China. In An International Conference on the Cambrian Explosion – Banff, Alberta, August 3–8, 2009, Abstract Volume (eds Smith, M., O'Brien, L. & Caron, J.-B.). Toronto: Burgess Shale Consortium (available online at:
Li, G. & Chen, J. 1992. [Early Cambrian cap-shaped lathamellids: their microstructures and systematics]. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 31, 467–80. (in Chinese)
Li, C.-W., Chen, J.-Y. & Hua, T.-E. 1998. Precambrian sponges with cellular structures. Science 279, 879–82.
Li, D., Ling, H.-F., Jiang, S.-Y., Pan, J.-Y., Chen, Y.-Q., Cai, Y.-F. & Feng, H.-Z. 2009. New carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary interval from SW China: implications for global correlation. Geological Magazine 146, 465–84.
Li, G., Steiner, M., Zhu, M., Zhu, X. & Erdtmann, B.-D. 2007. Early Cambrian fossil record of metazoans in South China: generic diversity and radiation patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 226–46.
Li, G. & Xiao, S. 2004. Tannuolina and Micrina (Tannuolinidae) from the Lower Cambrian of eastern Yunnan, South China, and their scleritome reconstruction. Journal of Paleontology 78, 900–13.
Li, G., Zhang, J.-M. & Zhu, M. 2001. Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian Meishucunian Stage in the Xiaotan section, Eastern Yunnan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 40 (Supplement), 4053.
Lieberman, B. S. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of some basal Early Cambrian trilobites, the biogeographic origins of the Eutrilobita, and the timing of the Cambrian radiation. Journal of Paleontology 76, 692708.
Lindsay, J. F., Brasier, M. D., Dornjamjaa, D., Kruse, P., Goldring, R. & Wood, R. A. 1996. Facies and sequence controls on the appearance of the Cambrian biota in southwestern Mongolia: implications for the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. Geological Magazine 133, 417–28.
Liu, J., Shu, D., Han, H., Zhang, Z. & Zhang, X. 2007. Origin, diversification, and relationships of Cambrian lobopods. Gondwana Research 14 (1–2), 277–83.
Love, G. D., Fike, D. A., Grosjean, E., Stalvies, C., Grotzinger, J., Bradley, A. S., Bowring, S., Condon, D. & Summons, R. E. 2006. Constraining the timing of basal metazoan radiation using molecular biomarkers and U–Pb isotope dating. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A371.
Love, G. D., Grosjean, E., Stalvies, C., Fike, D. A., Grotzinger, J., Bradley, A. S., Kelly, A. E., Bhatia, M., Meredith, W., Snape, C. E., Bowring, S., Condon, D. & Summons, R. E. 2009. Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian Period. Nature 457, 718–22.
Luchinina, V. A., Korovnikov, I. V., Sipin, D. P. & Fedoseev, A. V. 1997. Upper Vendian–Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Sukharikha River section (Siberian Platform). Russian Geology and Geophysics 38 (8), 1385–97.
Luo, H., Jiang, Z., Wu, X., Song, X., Ouyang, L. 1982. The Sinian–Cambrian Boundary in Eastern Yunnan, China. Kunming: Yunnan People's Publishing House, 265 pp. (in Chinese, with an English summary).
Maas, A. & Waloszek, D. 2005. Phosphatocopina – ostracode-like sister group of Eucrustacea. Hydrobiologia 538, 139–52.
Maloof, A. C., Porter, S. M., Moore, J. L., Dudás, F. Ö., Bowring, S. A., Higgins, J. A., Fike, D. A. & Eddy, M. P. 2010 a. The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change. Geological Society of America Bulletin 122, 1731–74.
Maloof, A. C., Ramezani, J., Bowring, S. A., Fike, D. A., Porter, S. M. & Mazouad, M. 2010 b. Constraints on early Cambrian carbon cycling from the duration of the Nemakit-Daldynian-Tommotian boundary δ13C shift, Morocco. Geology 38, 623–6.
Maloof, A. C., Rose, C. V., Beach, R., Samuels, B. M., Calmet, C. C., Erwin, D. H., Poirier, G. R., Yao, N. & Simons, F. J. 2010 c. Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia. Nature Geoscience 3, 653–9.
Maloof, A. C., Schrag, D. P., Crowley, J. L. & Bowring, S. A. 2005. An expanded record of Early Cambrian carbon cycling from the Anti-Atlas Margin, Morocco. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42, 2195–216.
Mambetov, A. M. 1993. Drevnejshie skeletnye ostatki i zonal'naya stratigrafiya verkhnego dokembriya – kembriya Severnogo Tyan-Shanya. [The earliest skeletonized fossils and zonal stratigraphy of the upper Precambrian–Lower Cambrian of North Tien Shan]. In Novye dannye po biostratigrafii dokembriya i paleozoya Kyrgyzstana. [New data on biostratigraphy of the Precambrian and Palaeozoic of Kyrgyzstan.] (ed. Mambetov, A. M.), pp. 1523. Bishkek: Ilim (in Russian).
Mambetov, A. M. & Repina, L. N. 1979. Nizhnij kembrii talasskogo Ala-Too i ego korrelyatsiya s razrezami Malogo Karatau i Sibirskoj platformy. [Lower Cambrian of the Talass Ala-Too and its correlation with sections of the Lesser Karatau and Siberian Platform.] In Biostratigrafiya i paleontologiya nizhnego kembriya Sibiri. [Biostratigraphy and palaeontology of the Lower Cambrian of Siberia.] (ed. Zhuravleva, I. T.), pp. 98138. Trudy Instituta geologii i geofiziki SO AN SSSR 406. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Matthew, G. F. 1899. Studies on Cambrian faunas, no. 3: Upper Cambrian fauna of Mt. Stephen, British Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Series 2, 5, 3966.
Martí Mus, M., Palacios, T. & Jensen, S. 2008. Size of the earliest mollusks: did small helcionellids grow to become large adults? Geology 36, 175–8.
Mazumdar, A. & Banerjee, D. M. 1998. Siliceous sponge spicules in the Early Cambrian Chert-phosphate Member of the Lower Tal Formation, Krol belt, Lesser Himalaya. Geology 26, 899902.
McCaffrey, M. A., Moldowan, J. M., Lipton, P. A., Summons, R. E., Peters, K. E., Jeganathan, A. & Watt, D. S. 1994. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 529–32.
McIlroy, D. & Szaniawski, H. 2000. A lower Cambrian protoconodont apparatus from the Placentian of southeastern Newfoundland. Lethaia 33, 95102.
Mehl, D. 1998. Porifera and Chancelloriidae from the Middle Cambrian of the Georgina basin, Australia. Palaeontology 41, 1153–82.
Mens, K. & Pirrus, E. A. 1977. Stratotypicheskie razrezy kembriya Estonii. [Stratotype sections of the Cambrian of Estonia]. Tallinn: Valgus, 68 pp. (in Russian).
Meshkova, N. P., Nikolaeva, I. V., Kulikov, P. Yu., Zhuravleva, I. T., Luchinina, V. A., Musatov, D. I. & Sidoras, S. D. 1976. Stratigrafiya pogranichnykh otlozhenij dokembriya i kembriya severa Anabarskogo podnyatiya. [Stratigraphy of transitional Precambrian–Cambrian deposits of northern Anabar Uplift]. In Stratigrafiya i paleontologiya nizhnego i srednego kembriya SSSR. [Stratigraphy and palaeontology of the Lower and Middle Cambrian of the USSR.] (ed. Zhuravleva, I. T.), pp. 322. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1974. Novye dannye o drevnejshikh okamenelostyakh rannego kembriya Sibirskoj platformy. [New data on the oldest fossils of the early Cambrian of the Siberian Platform.] In Biostratigrafiya i paleontologiya nizhnego kembriya Evropy i severnoj Azii. [Biostratigraphy and palaeontology of the Lower Cambrian of Europe and northern Asia.] (eds Zhuravleva, I. T. & Rozanov, A. Yu.), pp. 179–89. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1982. Raschlenenie i korrelyatsiya pogranichnykh tolsch dokembriya i kembriya po nekotorym drevnejshim gruppam skeletnykh organizmov. [Subdivision and correlation of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary beds using some groups of the oldest skeletal organisms.] Byulleten’ Moskovskogo obschestva ispytatelej prirody, Otdelenie geologii 57 (5), 5267 (in Russian).
Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1989. Drevnejshie skeletnye okamenelosti i stratigrafiya pogranichnykh tolshch dokembriya i kembriya. [The oldest skeletal fossils and stratigraphy of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary beds.] Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 443, 237 pp. (in Russian)
Missarzhevsky, V. V. & Mambetov, A. M. 1981. Stratigrafiya i fauna pogranichnykh sloev kembriya i dokembriya Malogo Karatau. [Stratigraphy and fauna of the Cambrian and Precambrian boundary beds of the Lesser Karatau Range.] Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 326, 92 pp. (in Russian)
Moczydłowska, M. 2002. Early Cambrian phytoplankton diversification and appearance of trilobites in the Swedish Caledonides with implications for coupled evolutionary events between primary producers and consumers. Lethaia 35, 191214.
Moore, J. L., Porter, S. M., Steiner, M. & Li, G. 2010. Cambrothyra ampulliformis, an unusual coelosceritophoran from the lower Cambrian of Shaanxi Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 84, 1040–60.
Müller, K. J. 1959. Kambrische Conodonten. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 111, 434–85.
Müller, K. J. 1964. Ostracoda (Bradoriina) mit phosphatischen Gehäusen aus dem Oberkambrium von Schweden. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 121, 146.
Müller, K. J. 1971. Cambrian conodont faunas. Geological Society of America Memoir 127, 520.
Müller, W. E. G., Li, J., Schröder, H. C., Qiao, L. & Wang, X. 2007. The unique skeleton of siliceous sponges (Porifera; Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) that evolved first from the Urmetazoa during the Proterozoic: a review. Biogeosciences 4, 219–32.
Narbonne, G. M. 2005. The Ediacara biota: Neoproterozoic origin of animals and their ecosystems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 33, 421–42.
Narbonne, G. M., Kaufman, A. J. & Knoll, A. H. 1994. Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals. Geological Society of America Bulletin 106, 1281–92.
Neal, M. L. & Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Paleoecologic and taxonomic implications of Sphenothallus and Sphenothallus-like specimens from Ohio and areas adjacent to Ohio. Journal of Paleontology 74, 369–80.
Neckaja, A. I. & Ivanova, V. A. 1956. Pervaya nakhodka ostrakod v nizhnem kembrii Vostocjnoj Sibiri. [First find of ostracods in the Lower Cambrian of eastern Siberia.] Doklady AN SSSR 111 (5), 1095–97.
Ogg, J. G, Ogg, G. & Gradstein, F. M. 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 177 pp.
Parkhaev, Yu. P. 1998. Siphonoconcha – novyj klass rannekembriyskikh dvustvorchatykh organizmov. [Siphonoconcha – a new class of early Cambrian bivalved organisms.] Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 1998 (1), 316.
Peel, J. S. 1991. The classes Tergomya and Helcionelloida, and early molluscan evolution. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 161, 1165.
Pel'man, Yu. L. 1977. Ranne- i srednekembrijskie bezzamkovye brakhiopody Sibirskoj platformy. [Early and Middle Cambrian inarticulate brachiopods of the Siberian Platform.] Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki SO AN SSSR 316. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 168 pp.
Pel'man, Yu. L. 1985. Novye stenotekoidy iz nizhnego kembriya Zapadnoj Mongolii [New stenothecoids from the Lower Cambrian of western Mongolia.] Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki SO AN SSSR 632, 103–14. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Pel'man, Yu. L., Ermak, V. V., Fedorov, A. B., Luchinina, V. A., Zhuravleva, I. T., Repina, L. N., Bondarev, V. I. & Borodaevskaya, Z. V. 1990. Novye dannye po stratigrafii i paleontologii verkhnego dokembriya i nizhnego kembriya r. Dzhandy (pravyj pritok r. Aldan). [New data on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the upper Precambrian and lower Cambrian of river Dzhandy (right tributary of river Aldan).] In Biostratigrafiya i paleontologiya kembriya Severnoj Azii. [Biostratigraphy and palaeontology of the Cambrian of northern Asia.] (ed. Repina, L. N.), pp. 332. Novosibirsk: Nauka (in Russian).
Pel'man, Yu. L., Aksarina, N. A., Koneva, S. P., Popov, L. Ye., Sobolev, L. P. & Ushatinskaya, G. T. 1992. Drevneyshie brakhiopody territorii severnoy Evrazii. [The oldest brachiopods from the territory of northern Eurasia.] Novosibirsk: OIGGiM RAN, 145 pp.
Peng, J., Zhao, Y.-L., Wu, Y., Yuan, J.-L. & Tai, T.-S. 2005. The Balang Fauna – a new early Cambrian Fauna from Kaili City, Guizhou Province. Chinese Science Bulletin 50, 1159–62.
Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 2005. Unikal'nye sinskiye mestonakhozhdeniya rannekembriyskikh organizmov (Sibirskaya platforma). [Unique Sinsk localities of Early Cambrian organisms (Siberian Platform).] Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 284, 143 pp.
Popov, L. E., Bassett, M. G., Zhevchuzhnikov, V. G., Holmer, L. E. & Klishevich, I. A. 2009. Gondwanan faunal signatures from Early Palaeozoic terranes of Kazakhstan and Central Asia: evidence and tectonic implications. In Early Palaeozoic Peri-Gondwana Terranes: New Insights from Tectonics and Biogeography (ed. Bassett, M. G.), pp. 2364. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 325.
Porter, S. M. 2007. Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization. Science 316, 1302.
Porter, S. M. 2008. Skeletal microstructure indicates chancelloriids and halkieriids are closely related. Palaeontology 51, 865–79.
Pyle, L. J., Narbonne, G. M., James, N. P., Dalrymple, R. W. & Kaufman, A. J. 2004. Integrated Ediacaran chronostratigraphy, Wernecke Mountains, northwestern Canada. Precambrian Research 132, 127
Pyle, L. J., Narbonne, G. M., Nowlan, G. S., Xiao, S. & James, N. P. 2006. Early Cambrian metazoan eggs, embryos, and phosphatic microfossils from northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology 80, 811–25.
Qian, Y. 1978. The early Cambrian hyolithids in central and southwest China and their stratigraphical significance. Memoirs of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology 11, 143 (in Chinese with English summary).
Qian, Y. 1989. Early Cambrian small shelly fossils of China with special reference to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Systemic Boundaries in China, Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary (2). Nanjing: Nanjing University Publishing House, 342 pp.
Qian, Y. (ed.) 1999. Taxonomy and Biostratigraphy of Small Shelly Fossils in China. Beijing: Science Press, 247 pp. (in Chinese with English summary).
Qian, Y. & Bengtson, S. 1989. Palaeontology and biostratigraphy of the Early Cambrian Meishucunian Stage in Yunnan Province, South China. Fossils and Strata 24, 1156.
Qian, Y., Li, G. & Zhu, M. 2001 The Meishucunian Stage and its small shelly fossil sequence in China. Acta Palaeontological Sinica 40 (Supplement), 5462.
Qian, Y., Li, G.-X., Zhu, M.-Y., Steiner, M. & Erdtmann, B.-D. 2004. Early Cambrian protoconodonts and conodont-like fossils from China: taxonomic revisions and stratigraphic implications. Progress in Natural Science 14 (2), 173–80.
Qian, Y., Van Iten, H., Cox, R. S., Zhu, M.-Y. & Zhuo, E.-J. 1997. A brief account of Emeiconularia trigemme, a new genus and species of protoconulariid. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 14, 475–88.
Qian, Y. & Yin, G. 1984. Zhijinitae and its stratigraphical significance. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 23, 216–23.
Qian, Y., Zhu, M., Li, G., Jiang, Z. & Van Iten, H. 2002. A supplemental Precambrian-Cambrian boundary global stratotype section in SW China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 41, 1926.
Ramsköld, L. & Hou, X. 1991. New early Cambrian animal and onychophoran affinities of enigmatic metazoans. Nature 351, 225–8.
Randell, R. D., Lieberman, B. S., Hasiotis, S. T. & Pope, M. C. 2005. New chancelloriids from the Early Cambrian Sekwi Formation with a comment on chancelloriid affinities. Journal of Paleontology 79, 987–96.
Raymond, P. E. 1935. Leanchoilia and other mid-Cambrian Arthropoda. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 46, 202–30.
Reitner, J. 1992. Coralline spongien der versuch einer phylogenetisch-taxonomischen Analyse. Berliner Geowissenshaftliche Abhandlungen E 1, 352 pp.
Reitner, J. & Wörheide, G. 2002. Non-Lithistid fossil Demospongiae – origins of their palaeobiodiversity and highlights in history of preservation. In Systema Porifera: A guide to the classification of sponges (eds Hooper, J. N. A. & van Soest, R.), pp. 5268. New York: Kluwer.
Repina, L. N., Lazarenko, N. P., Meshova, N. P., Korshunov, V. T., Nikiforov, N. T. & Aksarina, N. A. 1974. Biostratigraphy and fauna of the Lower Cambrian of the Kharulakh (Tuora-Sis Ridge). Moscow: Nauka, 299 pp.
Riding, R. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1995. Structure and diversity of oldest sponge-microbe reefs: Lower Cambrian, Aldan River, Siberia. Geology 23, 649–52.
Rigby, J. K. & Hou, X.-G. 1995. Lower Cambrian demosponges and hexactinellid sponges from Yunnan, China. Journal of Paleontology 69, 1009–19.
Rowland, S. M., Luchinina, V. A., Korovnikov, I. V., Sipin, D. P., Tarletskov, A. & Fedoseev, A. V. 1998. Biostratigraphy of the Vendian–Cambrian Sukharikha River section, northwestern Siberian Platform. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 35, 339–52.
Rozanov, A. Yu., Khomentovsky, V. V., Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Karlova, G. A., Varlamov, A. I., Luchinina, V. A., Pegel’, T. V., Demidenko, Yu. E., Parkhaev, P. Yu., Korovnikov, I. V. & Skorlotova, N. A. 2008. To the problem of stage subdivision of the Lower Cambrian. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 16 (1), 119.
Rozanov, A. Yu. & Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1966. Biostratigrafiya i fauna nizhnikh gorizontov kembriya. [Biostratigraphy and fauna of the lower horizons of the Cambrian.]. Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 148, 1125 (in Russian).
Rozanov, A. Y., Missarzhevsky, V. V., Volkova, N. A., Voronova, L. C., Krylov, I. N., Keller, B. M., Korolyuk, I. K., Lendzion, K., Michniak, R., Pykhova, N. G. & Sidorov, A. D. 1969. Tommotskij jarus i problema nizhnej granizty kembrija. [The Tommotian Stage and the Cambrian lower boundary problem.] Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 206, 1380. (In Russian; English edition: 1981, 359 pp. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co.).
Rozanov, A. Yu., Parkhaev, P. Yu., Demidenko, Yu. E., Karlova, G. A., Korovnikov, I. V., Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Ivantsov, A. Yu., Luchinina, V. A., Malakhovskaya, Ya. E., Mel'nikova, L. M., Naimark, E. B., Ponomarenko, A. G., Skorlotova, N. A., Sundukov, V. M., Tokarev, D. A., Ushatinskaya, G. T. & Kipriyanova, L. D. 2010. Iskopaemye stratotipov yarusov nizhnego kembriya. [Fossils from the Lower Cambrian Stage stratotypes.] Moscow: PIN RAN, 228 pp.
Rozanov, A. Yu., Repina, L. N., Apollonov, M. K., Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Pegel’, T. V., Fedorov, A. B., Astashkin, V. A., Zhuravleva, I. T., Egorova, L. I., Chugaeva, M. N., Dubinina, S. V., Ermak, V. V., Esakova, N. V., Sundukov, V. V., Sukhov, S. S. & Zhemchuzhnikov, V. G. 1992. Kembrij Sibiri. [The Cambrian of Siberia]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 135 pp.
Rozanov, A. Yu. & Sokolov, B. S. (eds.) 1984. Stage Subdivision of the Lower Cambrian. Stratigraphy. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
Rozanov, A. Yu. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1992. The Lower Cambrian fossil record of the Soviet Union. In Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa (eds. Lipps, J. H. & Signor, P. W.), pp. 205–82. New York: Plenum.
Rozov, S. N. 1984. Morfologiya, terminologiya, i sistematicheskoe polozhenie stenotekoid. [Morphology, terminology, and systematic affinity of stenothecoids.] Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki SO AN SSSR 597, 117–33.
Runnegar, B. 1980. Hyolitha: status of the phylum. Lethaia 13, 21–5.
Runnegar, B. & Pojeta, J. 1974. Molluscan phylogeny: the paleontological viewpoint. Science 186, 311–17.
Runnegar, B., Pojeta, J., Morris, N. J., Taylor, J. D., Taylor, M. E. & McClung, G. 1975. Biology of the Hyolitha. Lethaia 8, 181–91.
Ruzhentsev, S. V. & Mossakovsky, A. A. 1995. Geodinamika i tektonikoe razvitie paleozoid tsentral'noy Azii kak rezul'tat vzaimodeystviya Tikhookeanskogo i Indo-Atlanticheskogo segmentov Zemli. [Geodynamics and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian paleozoids as a result of interaction between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic segments of Earth]. Geotektonika 1995 (4), 2947.
Salter, J. W. 1864. On some new fossils from the Lingula flags of Wales. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 20, 233–41.
Samuelson, J., Van Roy, P. & Vecoli, M. 2001. Micropalaeontology of a Moroccan Ordovician deposit yielding soft-bodied organisms showing Ediacara-like preservation. Geobios 34, 365–73.
Sawaki, Y., Nishizawa, M., Suo, T., Komiya, T., Hirata, T., Takahata, N., Sano, Y., Han, J., Kon, Y. & Maruyama, S. 2008. Internal structures and U-Pb ages of zircons from a tuff layer in the Meishucunian formation, Yunnan Province, South China. Gondwana Research 14 (1–2), 148–58.
Sayutina, T. A. 1980. Rannekembrijskoe semejstvo Khasaktiidae fam. nov. – vozmozhnye stromatoporaty. [The Lower Cambrian family Khasaktiidae fam. nov. – probable stromatoporates]. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1980 (4), 1328. (English translation: Paleontological Journal 14(4), 13–30.)
Semikhatov, M. A. & Serebryakov, S. N. 1983. The Siberian hypostratotype of the Riphean. Trudy Geologischeskogo Instituta AN SSSR 210, 1207.
Serezhnikova, E. A. 2007 Palaeophragmodictya spinosa sp. nov., a bilateral benthic organism from the Vendian of the southeastern White Sea region. Paleontological Journal 41 (4), 360–69.
Serezhnikova, E. A. & Ivantsov, A. Yu. 2007. Fedomia mikhaili – a new spicule-bearing organism of sponge grade from the Vendian (Ediacaran) of the White Sea, Russia. Palaeoworld 16 (4), 319–24.
Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Astashkin, V. A., Pegel, T. V., Egorova, L. I., Zhuravleva, I. T., Pel'man, Yu. L., Sundukov, V. M., Stepanova, M. V., Sukhov, S. S., Fedorov, A. B., Shishkin, B. B., Vaganova, N. V., Ermak, V. I., Ryabukha, K. V., Yadrenkina, A. G., Abaimova, G. P., Lopushinskaya, T. V., Sychev, O. V. & Moskalenko, T. A. 1987. Nizhnij paleozoj yugo-zapadnogo sklona Anabarskoj anteklizy (po materialam bureniya). [Lower Palaeozoic of SW slope of the Anabar anticline (drill core material).] Novosibirsk: Nauka, 208 pp.
Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Korovnikov, I. V., Pereladov, V. S. & Fefelov, A. F. 2008. Excursion 1a. The traditional Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary in the Kuonamka Formation of the Molodo River section (the southeastern slope of the Olenek Uplift of the Siberian Platform) proposed as a candidate for GSSP of the lower boundary of the Middle Cambrian and its basal (Molodian) stage, define by the FAD of Ovatoryctocara granulata. In The Cambrian System of the Siberian Platform. Part 2: North-east of the Siberian Platform (eds Rozanov, A. Yu. & Varlamov, A. I.). Moscow: PIN RAN and Novosibirsk, 140 pp.
Shergold, J. & Geyer, G. 2003. The Subcommission on Cambrian stratigraphy: the status quo. Geologica Acta 1 (1), 59.
Shu, D. G., Luo, H. L., Conway Morris, S., Zhang, X. L., Hu, S.-X., Chen, L., Han, J., Zhu, M., Li, Y. & Chen, L.-Z. 1999. Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature 402, 42–6.
Shu, D., Vannier, J., Luo, H.-L., Chen, L.-Z., Zhang, X.-L. & Hu, S.-X. 1999 Anatomy and lifestyle of Kunmingella (Arthropoda, Bradoriida) from the Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian, southwest China). Lethaia 32, 279–98.
Signor, P. W. 1992. Evolutionary and tectonic implications of Early Cambrian faunal endemism. In The History of Water: Eastern Sierra Nevada, Owens Valley, White-Inyo Mountains (eds Hall, C. A. Jr., Doyle-Jones, V. & Widawski, B.), pp. 113. White Mountain Research Station Symposium, vol. 4. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California.
Skovsted, C. B. 2003. Mobergellans (Problematica) from the Cambrian of Greenland, Siberia and Kazakhstan. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 77, 429–43.
Skovsted, C. B. 2004. The mollusc fauna of the Early Cambrian Bastion Formation of North-East Greenland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 51, 1137.
Skovsted, C. B. 2006. Small Shelly fauna from the upper Lower Cambrian Bastion and Ella Island formations, north-east Greenland. Journal of Paleontology 80, 1087–112.
Skovsted, C. B., Balthasar, U., Brock, G. A. & Paterson, J. R. 2009 a. The tommotiid Camenella reticulosa from the lower Cambrian of South Australia, scleritome reconstructions and tommotiid phylogeny. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54, 525–40.
Skovsted, C. B., Brock, G. A. & Paterson, J. R. 2006. Bivalved arthropods from the Lower Cambrian Mernmerna Formation of South Australia and their implications for the identification of Cambrian “small shelly fossils”. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 32, 741.
Skovsted, C. B., Brock, G. A., Paterson, J. R., Holmer, L. E. & Budd, G. E. 2008. The scleritome of Eccentrotheca from the Lower Cambrian of South Australia: lophophorate affinities and implications for tommotiid phylogeny. Geology 36, 171–4.
Skovsted, C. B., Holmer, L. E., Larsson, C. M., Högström, A. E. S., Brock, G. A., Topper, T. P., Balthasar, U., Petterson Stolk, S. & Paterson, J. P. 2009 b. The scleritome of Paterimitra: an Early Cambrian stem group brachiopod from South Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 276, 1651–6.
Skovsted, C. B., Holmer, L. E., Topper, T. P. & Brock, G. A. 2010. Brachiopod affinity of the Lower Cambrian problematic bivalve Apistoconcha. International Palaeontological Congress, London, June, 28–July, 3, Abstracts with programme, p. 356.
Skovsted, C. B. & Peel, J. S. 2011. Hyolithellus in life position from the lower Cambrian of North Greenland. Journal of Paleontology 85, 3747.
Smith, M. P. & Sansom, I. J. 1995. The affinity of Anatolepis. Geobios 28 (Supplement 2), 61–3.
Smith, M. P., Sansom, I. J. & Cochrane, K. D. 2001. The Cambrian origin of vertebrates. In Major Events in Early vertebrate Evolution – Palaeontology, phylogeny, genetics, and development (ed. Ahlberg, P. E.), pp. 6784. The Systematics Association Special Volume 61.
Smith, M. P., Sansom, I. J. & Repetski, J. E. 1996. Histology of the first fish. Nature 380, 702–4.
Snodgrass, R. E. 1938. Evolution of the Annelida, Onychophora, and Arthropoda. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 97 (6), 1159.
Sokolov, B. S. & Zhuravleva, I. T. (eds) 1983. Yarusnoe raschlenenie nizhnego kembriya Sibiri. Atlas okamenelostej. [Stage subdivision of the Lower Cambrian of Siberia. Atlas of fossils.] Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki SO AN SSSR 558, 1216.
Sperling, E. A., Pisani, D. & Peterson, K. J. 2007. Poriferan paraphyly and its implications for Precambrian palaeobiology. In The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota (eds Vickers-Rich, P. & Komarower, P.), pp. 355–68. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 286.
Sprinkle, J. 1973. Morphology and Evolution of Blastozoan Echinoderms. Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication, 283 pp.
Stanley, S. M. & Hardie, L. A. 1998. Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reefbuilding and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 144, 319.
Steiner, M. & Li, G. 2010. Cambrian Small Shelly Fossils and the taphonomic phosphatization window. International Palaeontological Congress, London, June, 28–July, 3, Abstracts with programme, p. 363.
Steiner, M., Li, G., Qian, Y. & Zhu, M. 2004 a. Lower Cambrian Small Shelly Fossils of northern Sichuan and southern Shaanxi (China), and their biostratigraphic importance. Geobios 37, 259–75.
Steiner, M., Li, G.-X., Qian, Y., Zhu, M.-Y. & Erdtmann, B.-D. 2007. Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Small Shelly assemblages of the Yangtze Platform (China) and their potential for regional and international correlation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 6799.
Steiner, M., Mehl, D., Reitner, J. & Erdtmann, B.-D. 1993. Oldest entirely preserved sponges and other fossils from the lowermost Cambrian and a new facies reconstruction of the Yangtze platform (China). Berliner Geowissenschaftlich Abhandlungern E 9, 293329.
Steiner, M., Zhu, M., Li, G., Qian, Y. & Erdtmann, B.-D. 2004 b. New Early Cambrian bilaterian embryos and larvae from China.Geology 32, 833–36.
Steiner, M., Zhu, M., Weber, B. & Geyer, G. 2001. The Lower Cambrian of Eastern Yunnan: trilobite-based biostratigraphy and related faunas. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 40 (Supplement), 6379.
Streng, M., Ebbestad, J. O. R. & Moczydłowska, M. 2008. A Walcottella-like bradoriid (Arthropoda) from the lower Cambrian of Sweden. GFF 130, 11–9.
Streng, M. & Skovsted, C. B. 2006. A new mobergellan (small shelly fossils) from the early Middle Cambrian of Morocco and its significance. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 80/3, 209–20.
Sysoev, V. A. 1962. Khiolity kembriya severnogo sklona Aldanskogo shchita. [Cambrian hyolithids from the northern slope of the Aldan shield.] Yakutian Filial of SO AN SSSR, 66 pp.
Szaniawski, H. 1982. Chaetognath grasping spines recognized among Cambrian protoconodonts. Journal of Paleontology 56, 806–10.
Szaniawski, H. 2002. New evidence for the protoconodont origin of chaetognaths. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47, 405–19.
Szaniawski, H. & Bengtson, S. 1993. Origin of euconodont elements. Journal of Paleontology 67, 640–54.
Szaniawski, H. & Bengtson, S. 1998. Late Cambrian euconodonts from Sweden. In Proceedings of the Sixth European Conodont Symposium (ECOS VI) (ed. Szaniawski, H.). Palaeontologia Polonica 58, 729.
Tang, T., Zhang, J. & Jiang, X. 1978. Discovery and significance of the Late Sinian fauna from western Hunan and Hubei. Acta Stratigraphica Sinica 2, 3245.
Thomas, R. D. K., Sherman, R. M. & Stewart, C. W. 2000. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons. Science 288, 1239–42.
Tiwari, M. 1999. Organic-walled microfossils from the Chert-Phosphate Member, Tal Formation, Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, India. Precambrian Research 97, 99113.
Tiwari, M., Pant, C. C. & Tewari, V. C. 2000. Neoproterozoic sponge spicules and organic-walled microfossils from the Gangolihat Dolomite, Lesser Himalaya, India. Current Science 79 (5), 651–4.
Topper, T. P., Brock, G. A., Skovsted, C. B. & Paterson, J. R. 2010. Palaeoscolecid scleritome fragments with Hadimopanella plates from the early Cambrian of South Australia. Geological Magazine 147, 8697.
Topper, T. P., Skovsted, C. B., Brock, G. A. & Paterson, J. R. 2011. The oldest bivalved arthropods from the early Cambrian of East Gondwana: systematics, biostratigraphy and biogeography. Gondwana Research 19, 310–26.
Ushatinskaya, G. T. 1987. Neobychnye bezzamkovye brakhiopody iz nizhnego kembriya Mongolii. [Unusual inarticulate brachiopods from the Lower Cambrian of Mongolia.] Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1987(2), 62–8. (English translation: Paleontological Journal 21 (2), 5966.)
Ushatinskaya, G. T. & Malakhovskaya, Ya. E. 2001. Origin and development of the Cambrian brachiopod biochores. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 9 (6), 540–56.
Ushatinskaya, G. T. & Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1994. K probleme mineralizatsii skeleta (na primere brakhiopod). [To the problem on skeletal biomineralization (exemplified by brachiopods).] Doklady Akademii Nauk 337 (2), 231–4 (in Russian).
Val'kov, A. K. 1982. Biostratigrafiya nizhnego kembriya vostoka Sibirskoj platformy (Uchuro-Majskij rajon). [Biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian of eastern Siberian platform (Utchur-Maya region)]. Moscow: Nauka, 91 pp. (in Russian)
Val'kov, A. K. 1987. Biostratigrafija nizhnego kembrija vostoka Sibirskoj platformy (Yudoma-Oleniokskij region). [Biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian of eastern Siberian Platform (Yudoma-Oleniok region)]. Moscow: Nauka, 136 pp. (in Russian)
Van Iten, H., Vyhlasova, Z., Zhu, M.-Y. & Qian, Y. 2005. Widespread occurrence of microscopic pores in conulariids. Journal of Paleontology 79, 400–7.
Van Iten, H., Zhu, M.-Y. & Collins, D. 2002. First report of Sphenothallus Hall, 1847 in the Middle Cambrian. Journal of Paleontology 76, 902–5.
Van Iten, H., Zhu, M.-Y. & Li, G. 2010. Redescription of Hexaconularia He and Yang, 1986 (Lower Cambrian, South China): implications for the affinities of conulariid-like small shelly fossils. Palaeontology 53, 191–9.
Vannier, J., Steiner, M., Renvoise, E., Hu, S.-X. & Casanova, J.-P. 2007. Early Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274, 627–33.
Varlamov, A. I., Rozanov, A. Yu., Khomentovsky, V. V., Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Abaimova, G. P., Demidenko, Yu. E., Karlova, G. A., Korovnikov, I. V., Luchinina, V. A., Malakhovskaya, Ya. E., Parkhaev, P. Yu., Pegel, T. V., Skorlotova, N. A., Sundukov, V. M., Sukhov, S. S., Fedorov, A. B. & Kipriyanova, L. D. 2008. The Cambrian System of the Siberian Platform. Part 1: The Aldan-Lena region. Moscow-Novosibirsk: PIN RAN, 300 pp.
Vendrasco, M. J., Li, G., Porter, S. M. & Fernandez, C. Z. 2009. New data on the enigmatic Ocruranus-Eohalobia group of early Cambrian small skeletal fossils. Palaeontology 52, 1373–96.
Voronin, Y. I., Voronova, L. G., Grigor'eva, N. V., Drozdova, N. A., Zhegallo, E. A., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Ragozina, A. L., Rozanov, A. Yu., Sayutina, T. A., Sysoeva, V. A. & Fonin, V. D. 1982. Granitsa dokembriya i kembriya v geosinklinal'nykh oblastyakh (opornyj razrez Salany-Gol, MNR). [The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in the geosynclinal regions (reference section Salany-Gol, MNR).] Trudy Sovmestnoj sovetsko-mongol'skoj paleontologicheskoj ehkspeditsii.Volume 18. Moscow: Nauka, 150 pp. (in Russian)
Voronova, L. G., Drosdova, N. A., Esakova, N. V., Zhegallo, E. A., Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Rozanov, A. Yu., Sayutina, T. A. & Ushatinskaya, G. T. 1987. Iskopaemye nizhnego kembriya gor Makkenzi (Kanada). [Lower Cambrian fossils from the Mackenzie Mountains (Canada).] Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 224, 88 pp. (in Russian)
Vostokova, V. A. 1962. Kembrijskie gastropody Sibrskoj platformy i Tajmyra. [The Cambrian gastropods from Siberia and Tajmyr.] Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Geologii Arktiki 28, 5174 (in Russian).
Walcott, C. D. 1889. Stratigraphic position of the Olenellus fauna in North America and Europe. American Journal of Science 38, 374–92.
Walcott, C. D. 1920. Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 67, 261364.
Weber, B., Steiner, M. & Zhu, M. 2007. Precambrian–Cambrian trace fossils from the Yangtze Platform (South China) and the early evolution of bilaterian lifestyles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 328–49.
Weber, B. & Zhu, M. 2003. Arthropod trace fossils from the Zhujiaqing Formation (Meishucunian, Yunnan) and their palaeobiological implications. Progress in Natural Science 13 (10), 795800.
Wilmot, N. V. & Fallick, A. E. 1989. Original mineralogy of trilobite exoskeletons. Palaeontology 32, 297304.
Williams, A. & Holmer, L. E. 2002. Shell structure and inferred growth, functions and affinities of the sclerites of the problematic Micrina. Palaeontology 45, 845–73.
Williams, M., Siveter, D. J., Popov, L. E. & Vannier, J. M. C. 2007 Biogeography and affinities of the bradoriid arthropods: cosmopolitan microbenthos of the Cambrian seas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 248, 202–32.
Wood, R. A., Grotzinger, J. P. & Dickson, J. A. D. 2002. Proterozoic modular biomineralized metazoan from the Nama Group, Namibia. Science 296, 2383–6.
Wrona, R. 1982. Early Cambrian phosphatic microfossils from southern Spitsbergen (Horsund region). Palaeontologia Polonica 43, 916.
Xing, Y., Ding, Q., Luo, H., He, T. & Wang, Y. 1984 (but data on cover is 1983). The Sinian-Cambrian boundary of China. Bulletin of the Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences 10, 262 pp. (in Chinese)
Yochelson, E. L. 1969. Stenothecoida, a proposed new class of Cambrian Mollusca. Lethaia 2, 4962.
Young, G. C. 2009. An Ordovician vertebrate from western New South Wales, with comments on Cambro-Ordovician vertebrate distribution patterns. Alcheringa 33, 7989.
Yu, W. 1996. Early Cambrian stenothecoid molluscs from China. Records of the Western Australian Museum 18, 209–17.
Yuan, X., Xiao, S., Parsley, R. L., Zhou, C., Chen, Z. & Hu, J. 2002. Towering sponges in an Early Cambrian Lagerstätte: disparity between nonbilaterian and bilaterian epifaunal tiers at the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian transition. Geology 30, 363–6.
Zamora, S., Lefebvre, B., Álvaro, J. J., Clausen, S., Elicki, O., Fatka, O., Jell, P., Kouchinsky, A., Lin, J.-P., Nardin, E., Parsley, R., Rozhnov, S., Sprinkle, J., Sumrall, C. D., Vizcaïno, D. & Smith, A. B. In press. Cambrian echinoderm diversity and palaeobiogeography. In Early Palaeozoic Palaeography and Biogeography (eds. Harper, D. & Servais, T.). Geological Society of London, Special Publication.
Zhang, X.-G. 2007. Phosphatized bradoriids (Arthropoda) from the Cambrian of China. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 281, 93173.
Zhang, W. & Babcock, L. E. 2001. New extraordinarily preserved enigmatic fossils, possibly with Ediacaran affinities, from the Lower Cambrian of Yunnan, China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 40 (Supplement), 201–13.
Zhang, H., Dong, X.-P. & Maas, A. 2011. Hesslandona angustata (Phosphatocopida, Crustacea) from the Upper Cambrian of western Hunan, South China, with comments on phosphatocopid phylogeny. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 259, 157–75.
Zhang, Y., Yuan, X. & Yin, L. 1998. Interpreting Late Precambrian microfossils. Science 282, 1783.
Zhao, Z., Xing, Y., Ding, Q., Liu, G., Zhao, Y., Zhang, S., Meng, X., Yin, C., Ning, B. & Han, P. 1988. The Sinian System of Hubei. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 205 pp.
Zhou, C., Yuan, X. & Xue, Y. 1998. Sponge spicule-like pseudofossils from the Neoproterozoic Toushantou Formation in Weng'an, Guizhou, China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 15, 380–4.
Zhu, R.-X., Li, X.-H., Hou, X., Pan, Y.-X., Wang, F., Deng, C.-L. & He, H.-Y. 2009. SIMS U-Pb zircon age of a tuff layer in the Meishucun section, Yunnan, southwest China: constraint on the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Science in China, Series D-Earth Sciences 52 (9), 1385–92.
Zhu, M., Li, G., Zhang, J., Steiner, M., Qian, Y. & Jiang, Z. 2001 Early Cambrian stratigraphy of east Yunnan, southwest China: a synthesis. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 40 (Supplement), 439.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1993. Early Cambrian steps of biomineralization: mineralogy. 7th International Symposium on Biomineralization, Monaco. Biomineralization 93, p. 103.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 1995. Preliminary suggestions of the global Early Cambrian Zonation. Beringeria Special Issue 2, 147–60.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu. 2001. Biotic diversity and structure during the Neoproterozoic–Ordovician transition. In The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation (eds Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Riding, R.), pp. 173–99. New York: Columbia University Press.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu., Liñán, E., Gámez Vintaned, J. A., Debrenne, F. & Fedorov, A. B. 2011. New finds of skeletal fossils in the terminal Neoproterozoic of the Siberian Platform and Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, doi: 10.4202/app.2010.0074.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Wood, R. A. 1996. Anoxia as the cause of the mid-Early Cambrian (Botomian) extinction event. Geology 24, 311–4.
Zhuravlev, A. Yu. & Wood, R. A. 2008. Eve of biomineralization: controls on skeletal mineralogy. Geology 36, 923–6.
Zhuravleva, I. T. 1955. K poznaniyu archeotsiat Sibiri. [To the understanding of archaeocyaths from Siberia.] Doklady AN SSSR 104 (4), 626–9.