In a QTL mapping study with an F2 population of mice, we have shown that one or more sex-linked factors account for a large part of the divergence between mouse lines selected for high and low body weight. Here, we describe a study undertaken to map the putative X-linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by backcrossing segments of chromosome from the high line onto an inbred line derived from the low line, thereby removing possible contributions from the autosomes and linked segments of the X chromosome. Sublines containing a regional at the proximal end of the X chromosome were found to be associated with large differences in body weight, and to account for almost all the difference between the lines. A Markov chain Monte Carlo based multipoint linkage analysis incorporating the available marker and phenotypic information from the backcross pedigree was used to map the QTL to a region of about 6 cM. There was no evidence for QTLs elsewhere on the chromosome. The estimated QTL effect is approximately 20% of mean body weight in males and females at 10 weeks. From results obtained from this study and the accompanying F2 analysis, we conclude the presence of a single factor for body weight localizing to about position (±SE) 26·4±1·2 cM on the X chromosome, which increases body weight by approximately 18% at 10 weeks. A strategy to positionally clone the QTL is discussed.