Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Design of an ecologically-based IPM program for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tanzania

  • Maulid W. Mwatawala (a1), Marc De Meyer (a2), Rhodes H. Makundi (a3) and Amon P. Maerere (a1)

Abstract

Introduction. Studies to determine the pre-requisites for formulating an IPM program for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were conducted in the Morogoro region, Central Tanzania, from 2004 to 2006. Specifically, studies aimed at determining the biodiversity of fruit flies, and their incidence and abundance in the surveyed region. Materials and methods. Adult flies were collected using McPhail traps baited with parapheromones (methyl eugenol, trimedlure and cue lure) and synthetic food baits (hydrolyzed yeast and three-component lure). Flies were also collected from infested fruits after incubation in the laboratory. A total of four sites and neighboring areas representing the three agro-ecological zones of Morogoro region were used. Results. Two key fruit fly pests were determined based on incidence in major fruits and their seasonal abundance. The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, is the key pest in the low and medium altitude areas. On the other hand, the Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, is the key frugivorous pest in the high altitude areas. Discussion. Management programs of fruit flies need to focus on key pests, taking into consideration their breeding in the non-agricultural habitats. Components of such a program should include the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT), legislation, use of parapheromones and baits, farm hygiene and sanitation, quarantine, surveillance and postharvest treatment.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
[1] White I.M., Elson-Harris M.M., Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics, CAB, Wallingford, UK, 1992, 601 p.
[2] Cohen, H., Yuval, B., Perimeter trapping strategy to reduce Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) damage on different host species in Israel, J. Econ. Entomol. 93 (3) (2000) 721725.
[3] Jackson, C.G., Long, J.P., Klungness, L.M., Depth of pupation in four species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sand with and without moisture, J. Econ. Entomol. 91 (1) (1998) 138142.
[4] Daxl R., Niels V., Carlos K., Rolf L., Hermann W., Integrated pest management, TZ Verl. Ges. mbH, Rossdorf, Germany, 1994, 119 p.
[5] Mwatawala, M.W., De Meyer, M., Makundi, R.H., Maerere, A.P., Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) at orchards in different agro-ecological zones of the Morogoro region, Tanzania, Fruits 61 (5) (2006) 321332.
[6] Anon., Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes, Int. At. Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2003, 47 p.
[7] Copeland, R.S., Wharton, R.A., Luke, Q., De Meyer, M., Indigenous hosts of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kenya, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95 (2002) 672694.
[8] Ekesi S., Mass rearing technology for Bactrocera invadens and several Ceratitis species in Africa, in: Sugayama R.L., Zucchi R.A., Ovruski S.M., and Sivinski J. (Eds.), Fruit flies of economic importance: from basic to applied knowledge, Proc. 7th Int. Symp. Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 10–15 Sept. 2006, Salvador, Brazil.
[9] Anon., Crop protection compendium, Commonw. Bur. Agric. Int. (CABI), Wallingford, UK, 2004, CD-Rom.
[10] White, I.M., Taxonomy of the Dacina (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Africa and the Middle East, Afr. Entomol. Mem. 2 (2006) 7156.
[11] Magurran A.E., Ecological diversity and its measurement, Croom Helm, London, UK, 1998, 179 p.
[12] Verghese, A., Tandon, P.L., Stonehouse, J.M., Economic evaluation of integrated management of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango in India, Crop Prot. 23 (2004) 6163.
[13] Vayssières, J.-F., Korie, S., Coulibaly, O., Temple, L., Boueyi, S.P., The mango tree in central and northern Benin: cultivar inventory, yield assessment, infested stages and loss due to fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae), Fruits 63 (2008) 335348.
[14] Aluja M., Future trends in fruit fly management, in: Fruit fly pests: A world assessment of their biology and management, Mc Pheron B.A. (Ed.), St Lucie Press, Florida, USA, 1996, pp. 309–323.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Design of an ecologically-based IPM program for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tanzania

  • Maulid W. Mwatawala (a1), Marc De Meyer (a2), Rhodes H. Makundi (a3) and Amon P. Maerere (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.