Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE AND PREGNANCY

  • MAYA KATZ (a1), JENNIFER LESKO (a2), KATHRYN F KIRCHOFF-TORRES (a1), VICTOR ZACH (a1) and STEVEN R LEVINE (a1)...

Extract

Approximately 12%–27% of cerebrovascular disease in women of childbearing age is associated with pregnancy. The reported incidence of stroke in pregnancy ranges from 0.01%–0.05%. While these events are uncommon, they are often clinically devastating. The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) review of death certificates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia found that neurologic or neurovascular problems are one of the leading causes of mortality in pregnancy.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Maya Katz, MD, Department of Neurology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1137, New York, NY 10029-6574, United States of America. Email address: Maya.Katz@MSSM.edu

References

Hide All
1Kittner, SJ, Stern, BJ, Feeser, BR, Hebel, R, Nagey, DA, Buchholz, DW, et al. Pregnancy and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 768–74.
2Awada, A, al Rajeh, S, Duarte, R, Russell, N. Stroke and pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1995; 48: 157–61.
3Sharshar, T, Lamy, C, Mas, JL. Incidence and causes of strokes associated with pregnancy and puerperium. A study in public hospitals of Ile de France. Stroke in Pregnancy Study Group. Stroke 1995; 26: 930–36.
4James, AH, Bushnell, CD, Jamison, MG, Myers, ER. Incidence and risk factors for stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 106: 509–16.
5Lanska, DJ, Kryscio, RJ. Stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis during pregnancy and puerperium. Neurology 1998; 51: 1622–628.
6Lanska, DJ, Kryscio, RJ. Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. Stroke 2000;: 1274–282.
7Liang, CC, Chang, SD, Lai, SL, Hsieh, CC, Chueh, HY, Lee, TH. Stroke complicating pregnancy and the puerperium. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 1256–260.
8Salonen Ros, H, Lichtenstein, P, Bellocco, R, Petersson, G, Cnattingius, S. Increased risks of circulatory diseases in late pregnancy and puerperium. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 456–60.
9Jaigobin, C, Silver, FL. Stroke and pregnancy. Stroke 2000; 31: 2948–951.
10Witlin, AG, Friedman, SA, Egerman, RS, Frangieh, AY, Sibai, BM. Cerebrovascular disorders complicating pregnancy–beyond eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: 1139–145.
11Simolke, GA, Cox, SM, Cunningham, FG. Cerebrovascular accidents complicating pregnancy and the puerperium. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 3742.
12Chang, J, Elam-Evans, LD, Berg, CJ, Herndon, J, Flowers, L, Seed, KA, et al. Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance–United States, 1991–1999. MMWR Surveill Summ 2003; 52: 18.
13Bateman, BT, Schumacher, HC, Bushnell, CD, Pile-Spellman, J, Simpson, LL, Sacco, RL, et al. Intracerebral hemorrhage in pregnancy: frequency, risk factors, and outcome. Neurology 2006; 67: 424–29.
14Johnson, DM, Kramer, DC, Cohen, E, Rochon, M, Rosner, M, Weinberger, J. Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke in late pregnancy with intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke 2005; 36: e535.
15Belogolovkin, V, Levine, SR, Fields, MC, Stone, JL. Postpartum eclampsia complicated by reversible cerebral herniation. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107: 442–45.
16Petitti, DB, Sidney, S, Quesenberry, CP Jr, Bernstein, A. Incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in women of reproductive age. Stroke 1997; 28: 280–83.
17Jeng, JS, Tang, SC, Yip, PK. Incidence and etiologies of stroke during pregnancy and puerperium as evidenced in Taiwanese women. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004; 18: 290–95.
18Tang, CH, Wu, CS, Lee, TH, Hung, ST, Yang, CY, Lee, CH, et al. Preeclampsia-eclampsia and the risk of stroke among peripartum in Taiwan. Stroke 2009; 40: 1162–168.
19Davie, CA, O'Brien, P. Stroke and pregnancy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 240–45.
20Lin, SY, Hu, CJ, Lin, HC. Increased risk of stroke in patients who undergo cesarean section delivery: a nationwide population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198: e1391.e7.
21Treadwell, SD, Thanvi, B, Robinson, TG. Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium. Postgrad Med J 2008; 84: 238–45.
22Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183: S1S22.
23Magee, LA, Helewa, M, Moutquin, JM, von Dadelszen, P. Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of the Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Canada 2008; 30: S1S48.
24Schroeder, BM, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin on diagnosing and managing preeclampsia and eclampsia. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Am Fam Physician 2002; 66: 330–31.
25Ward, C, Bushnell, CD, James, AH. The cardiovascular complications of pregnancy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 50: 126–35.
26Redman, CW, Sargent, IL. Preeclampsia and the systemic inflammatory response. Semin Nephrol 2004; 24: 565–70.
27Thachil, J, Toh, CH. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in obstetric disorders and its acute haematological management. Blood Rev 2009; 23: 167–76.
28Wilson, BJ, Watson, MS, Prescott, GJ, Sunderland, S, Campbell, DM, Hannaford, P, et al. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and risk of hypertension and stroke in later life: results from cohort study. Br Med J 2003; 326: 845.
29Zeeman, GG. Neurologic complications of pre-eclampsia. Semin Perinatol 2009; 33: 166–72.
30Cunningham, FG, Twickler, D. Cerebral edema complicating eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182: 94100.
31Trommer, BL, Homer, D, Mikhael, MA. Cerebral vasospasm and eclampsia. Stroke 1988; 19: 326–29.
32Belfort, M, Allred, J, Dildy, G. Magnesium sulfate decreases cerebral perfusion pressure in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2008; 27: 315–27.
33Hjertberg, R, Belfrage, P, Hanson, U. Conservative treatment of mild and moderate hypertension in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1992; 71: 439–46.
34Sibai, BM, Mabie, WC, Shamsa, F, Villar, MA, Anderson, GD. A comparison of no medication versus methyldopa or labetalol in chronic hypertension during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 960–66; 966–67.
35Marik, PE, Varon, J. Hypertensive crises: challenges and management. Chest 2007; 131: 1949–962.
36Magee, LA, von Dadelszen, P. The management of severe hypertension. Semin Perinatol 2009; 33: 138–42.
37Magann, EF, Bass, JD, Chauhan, SP, Perry, KG Jr, Morrison, JC, Martin, JN Jr. Accelerated recovery from severe preeclampsia: uterine curettage versus nifedipine. J Soc Gynecol Investig 1994; 1: 210–14.
38Matsuo, K, Kooshesh, S, Dinc, M, Sun, CC, Kimura, T, Baschat, AA. Late postpartum eclampsia: report of two cases managed by uterine curettage and review of the literature. Am J Perinatol 2007; 24: 257–66.
39Syrjanen, J, Valtonen, VV, Iivanainen, M, Kaste, M, Huttunen, JK. Preceding infection as an important risk factor for ischaemic brain infarction in young and middle aged patients. Br Med J 1988; 296: 1156–160.
40Huang, CY, Chen, CA, Hsieh, CY, Cheng, WF. Intracerebral hemorrhage as initial presentation of gestational choriocarcinoma: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007; 17: 1166–171.
41Ho, J, Sibbald, WJ, Chin-Yee, IH. Effects of storage on efficacy of red cell transfusion: when is it not safe? Crit Care Med 2003; 31: S68797.
42Wu, LA, Malouf, JF, Dearani, JA, Hagler, DJ, Reeder, GS, Petty, GW, et al. Patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke: current understanding and management options. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 950–56.
43Kozelj, M, Novak-Antolic, Z, Grad, A, Peternel, P. Patent foramen ovale as a potential cause of paradoxical embolism in the postpartum period. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999; 84: 5557.
44Hagen, PT, Scholz, DG, Edwards, WD. Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts. Mayo Clin Proc 1984; 59: 1720.
45Meissner, I, Whisnant, JP, Khandheria, BK, Spittell, PC, O'Fallon, WM, Pascoe, RD, et al. Prevalence of potential risk factors for stroke assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography: the SPARC study. Stroke Prevention: Assessment of Risk in a Community. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 862–69.
46Cramer, SC, Rordorf, G, Maki, JH, Kramer, LA, Grotta, JC, Burgin, WS, et al. Increased pelvic vein thrombi in cryptogenic stroke: results of the Paradoxical Emboli from Large Veins in Ischemic Stroke (PELVIS) study. Stroke 2004; 35: 4650.
47Giberti, L, Bino, G, Tanganelli, P. Pregnancy, patent foramen ovale and stroke: a case of pseudoperipheral facial palsy. Neurol Sci 2005; 26: 4345.
48Bodur, H, Caliskan, E, Anik, Y, Cakiroglu, Y, Corakci, A. Cranial thromboembolism secondary to patent foramen ovale and deep venous thrombosis after cesarean section. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2008; 65: 258–61.
49Heit, JA, Kobbervig, CE, James, AH, Petterson, TM, Bailey, KR, Melton, LJ, 3rd. Trends in the incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum: a 30-year population-based study. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 697706.
50Berthet, K, Lavergne, T, Cohen, A, Guize, L, Bousser, MG, Le Heuzey, JY, et al. Significant association of atrial vulnerability with atrial septal abnormalities in young patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Stroke 2000; 31: 398403.
51Sacco, RL, Adams, R, Albers, G, Alberts, MJ, Benavente, O, Furie, K, et al. Guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke: co-sponsored by the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke 2006; 37: 577–17.
52Casaubon, L, McLaughlin, P, Webb, G, Yeo, E, Merker, D, Jaigobin, C. Recurrent stroke/TIA in cryptogenic stroke patients with patent foramen ovale. Can J Neurol Sci 2007; 34: 7480.
53Daehnert, I, Ewert, P, Berger, F, Lange, PE. Echocardiographically guided closure of a patent foramen ovale during pregnancy after recurrent strokes. J Interv Cardiol 2001; 14: 191–92.
54Chatterjee, T, Petzsch, M, Ince, H, Rehders, TC, Korber, T, Weber, F, et al. Interventional closure with Amplatzer PFO occluder of patent foramen ovale in patients with paradoxical cerebral embolism. J Interv Cardiol 2005 Jun; 18: 173–79.
55T.A.C.E.T. – The Austrian Paradoxical Cerebral Embolism Trial. 17th Meeting of the European Neurological Society; June 18; 2007.
56Homma, S, Sacco, RL, Di Tullio, MR, Sciacca, RR, Mohr, JP, PFO in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS) Investigators. Effect of medical treatment in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale: patent foramen ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study. Circulation 2002; 105: 2625–631.
57Almekhlafi, MA, Wilton, SB, Rabi, DM, Ghali, WA, Lorenzetti, DL, Hill, MD. Recurrent cerebral ischemia in medically treated patent foramen ovale: a meta-analysis. Neurology 2009; 73: 8997.
58Schrale, RG, Ormerod, J, Ormerod, OJ. Percutaneous device closure of the patent foramen ovale during pregnancy. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2007; 69: 579–83.
59Roberts, N, Ross, D, Flint, SK, Arya, R, Blott, M. Thromboembolism in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparin. BJOG 2001; 108: 327–29.
60Chan, WS, Anand, S, Ginsberg, JS. Anticoagulation of pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 191–96.
61Danik, S, Fuster, V. The obstetrical patient with a prosthetic heart valve. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2006; 33: 481–91.
62Dyken, ME, Biller, J. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1994; 4: 325–28.
63Baughman, KL. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2001; 3: 469–80.
64Melvin, KR, Richardson, PJ, Olsen, EG, Daly, K, Jackson, G. Peripartum cardiomyopathy due to myocarditis. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 731–34.
65Kothari, SS. Aetiopathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy: prolactin-selenium interaction? Int J Cardiol 1997; 60: 111–14.
66Cenac, A, Simonoff, M, Moretto, P, Djibo, A. A low plasma selenium is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy. A comparative study in Sahelian Africa. Int J Cardiol 1992; 36: 5759.
67Ansari, AA, Fett, JD, Carraway, RE, Mayne, AE, Onlamoon, N, Sundstrom, JB. Autoimmune mechanisms as the basis for human peripartum cardiomyopathy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2002; 23: 301–24.
68Sliwa, K, Skudicky, D, Bergemann, A, Candy, G, Puren, A, Sareli, P. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: analysis of clinical outcome, left ventricular function, plasma levels of cytokines and Fas/APO-1. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35: 701705.
69Kuhl, U, Pauschinger, M, Seeberg, B, Lassner, D, Noutsias, M, Poller, W, et al. Viral persistence in the myocardium is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction. Circulation 2005; 112: 1965–970.
70Mehta, NJ, Mehta, RN, Khan, IA. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: clinical and therapeutic aspects. Angiology 2001; 52: 759–62.
71Abboud, J, Murad, Y, Chen-Scarabelli, C, Saravolatz, L, Scarabelli, TM. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a comprehensive review. Int J Cardiol 2007; 118: 295303.
72Bushnell, CD, Jamison, M, James, AH. Migraines during pregnancy linked to stroke and vascular diseases: US population based case-control study. Br Med J 2009; 338: b664.
73Kurth, T, Slomke, MA, Kase, CS, Cook, NR, Lee, IM, Gaziano, JM, et al. Migraine, headache, and the risk of stroke in women: a prospective study. Neurology 2005; 64: 10201026.
74Vanmolkot, FH, Van Bortel, LM, de Hoon, JN. Altered arterial function in migraine of recent onset. Neurology 2007; 68: 1563–570.
75Carhuapoma, JR, Tomlinson, MW, Levine, SR. Chapter 49. Neurologic Disorders. High Risk Pregnancy: Management Options. 3rd edition ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006; 10611097.
76Treadwell, SD, Robinson, TG. Cocaine use and stroke. Postgrad Med J 2007; 83: 389–94.
77Selo-Ojeme, DO, Marshman, LA, Ikomi, A, Ojutiku, D, Aspoas, RA, Chawda, SJ, et al. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 116: 131–43.
78Palomaki, H, Kaste, M. Regular light-to-moderate intake of alcohol and the risk of ischemic stroke. Is there a beneficial effect? Stroke 1993; 24: 1828–832.
79Robinson, JL, Hall, CS, Sedzimir, CB. Arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, and pregnancy. J Neurosurg 1974; 41: 6370.
80Hunt, HB, Schifrin, BS, Suzuki, K. Ruptured berry aneurysms and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1974; 43: 827–37.
81Tiel Groenestege, AT, Rinkel, GJ, Van Der Bom, JG, Algra, A, Klijn, CJ. The risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage during pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium in the Utrecht population: case-crossover study and standardized incidence ratio estimation. Stroke 2009; 40: 1148–151.
82Horton, JC, Chambers, WA, Lyons, SL, Adams, RD, Kjellberg, RN. Pregnancy and the risk of hemorrhage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery 1990; 27: 867–71.
83Witlin, AG, Mattar, F, Sibai, BM. Postpartum stroke: a twenty-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183: 8388.
84Griffin, JH, Mosher, DF, Zimmerman, TS, Kleiss, AJ. Protein C, an antithrombotic protein, is reduced in hospitalized patients with intravascular coagulation. Blood 1982; 60: 261–64.
85Bartkova, A, Sanak, D, Dostal, J, Herzig, R, Otruba, P, Vlachova, I, et al. Acute ischaemic stroke in pregnancy: a severe complication of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Neurol Sci 2008; 29: 463–66.
86Budev, MM, Arroliga, AC, Falcone, T. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: S301306.
87Baumann, P, Diedrich, K. Thromboembolic complications associated with reproductive endocrinologic procedures. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2000; 14: 431–43.
88Chan, WS. The ‘ART’ of thrombosis: a review of arterial and venous thrombosis in assisted reproductive technology. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2009; 21: 207–18.
89Greer, IA. Anticoagulants in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2006; 21: 5765.
90Carbillon, L, Uzan, M, Uzan, S. Pregnancy, vascular tone, and maternal hemodynamics: a crucial adaptation. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2000 55: 574–81.
91Desai, DK, Moodley, J, Naidoo, DP. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 2029.
92Paulson, OB, Strandgaard, S, Edvinsson, L. Cerebral autoregulation. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1990; 2: 161–92.
93Lewis, LK, Hinshaw, DB Jr, Will, AD, Hasso, AN, Thompson, JR. CT and angiographic correlation of severe neurological disease in toxemia of pregnancy. Neuroradiology 1988; 30: 5964.
94Strandgaard, S, Paulson, OB. Cerebral autoregulation. Stroke 1984; 15: 413–16.
95Barrett, JM, Van Hooydonk, JE, Boehm, FH. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1982; 37: 557–66.
96Gammal, EB. Intimal thickening in arteries of rats treated with synthetic sex hormones. Br J Exp Pathol 1976; 57: 248–54.
97Borg-Stein, J, Dugan, SA, Gruber, J. Musculoskeletal aspects of pregnancy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 84:180–92.
98Hellgren, M. Hemostasis during normal pregnancy and puerperium. Semin Thromb Hemost 2003; 29: 125–30.
99Bushnell, CD. Stroke and the female brain. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2008; 4: 2233.
100Jordaan, DJ, Schoon, MG, Badenhorst, PN. Thrombophilia screening in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005; 60: 394404.
101Brenner, B. Haemostatic changes in pregnancy. Thromb Res 2004; 114: 409–14.
102Clark, P, Brennand, J, Conkie, JA, McCall, F, Greer, IA, Walker, ID. Activated protein C sensitivity, protein C, protein S and coagulation in normal pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 1166–170.
103Wallaschofski, H, Donne, M, Eigenthaler, M, Hentschel, B, Faber, R, Stepan, H, et al. PRL as a novel potent cofactor for platelet aggregation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 5912–919.
104Macklon, NS, Greer, IA, Bowman, AW. An ultrasound study of gestational and postural changes in the deep venous system of the leg in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 191–97.
105Zeidman, LA, Videnovic, A, Bernstein, LP, Pellar, CA. Lethal pontine hemorrhage in postpartum syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 1150–153.
106Fox, MW, Harms, RW, Davis, DH. Selected neurologic complications of pregnancy. Mayo Clin Proc 1990; 65: 1595–618.
107American College of Radiology. ACR practice guidelines for imaging pregnant or potentially pregnant adolescents and women with ionizing radiation. Resolution 2008; 26: 2337.
108Kaplan, PW, Repke, JT. Eclampsia. Neurol Clin 1994; 12: 565–82.
109Adams, HP Jr, del Zoppo, G, Alberts, MJ, Bhatt, DL, Brass, L, Furlan, A, et al. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke 2007; 38: 1655–711.
110Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1581–587.
111Murugappan, A, Coplin, WM, Al-Sadat, AN, McAllen, KJ, Schwamm, LH, Wechsler, LR, et al. Thrombolytic therapy of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy. Neurology 2006; 66: 768–70.
112Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration. Title 21–Food and Drugs. Chapter I–Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Subchapter C–Drugs: General. Part 201–Labeling. 2007 April.
113Wiebers, DO, Mokri, B. Internal carotid artery dissection after childbirth. Stroke 1985; 16: 956–59.
114Engelter, ST, Lyrer, PA, Kirsch, EC, Steck, AJ. Long-term follow-up after extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Eur Neurol 2000; 44: 199204.
115Lyrer, P, Engelter, S. Antithrombotic drugs for carotid artery dissection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; (3): CD000255.
116Ginsberg, JS, Greer, I, Hirsh, J. Use of antithrombotic agents during pregnancy. Chest 2001; 119: 122S131S.
117Gasco, J, Rangel-Castilla, L, Clark, S, Franklin, B, Satchithanandam, L, Salinas, P. Hemorrhagic stroke with intraventricular extension in the setting of acute posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): case report. Neurocirugia (Astur) 2009; 20: 5761.
118Fletcher, JJ, Kramer, AH, Bleck, TP, Solenski, NJ. Overlapping Features of Eclampsia and Postpartum Angiopathy. Neurocrit Care 2009; 11: 199209. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
119Broderick, J, Connolly, S, Feldmann, E, Hanley, D, Kase, C, Krieger, D, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2007; 116: e391413.
120Singhal, AB. Postpartum angiopathy with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 411–16.
121Shah, AK. Non-aneurysmal primary subarachnoid hemorrhage in pregnancy-induced hypertension and eclampsia. Neurology 2003; 61: 117–20.
122Roman, H, Descargues, G, Lopes, M, Emery, E, Clavier, E, Diguet, A, et al. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to cerebral aneurysmal rupture during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 330–34.
123Stoodley, MA, Macdonald, RL, Weir, BK. Pregnancy and intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1998; 9: 549–56.
124Barker, FG 2nd, Ogilvy, CS. Efficacy of prophylactic nimodipine for delayed ischemic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a metaanalysis. J Neurosurg 1996; 84: 405–14.
125Belfort, MA, Saade, GR, Moise, KJ Jr, Cruz, A, Adam, K, Kramer, W, et al. Nimodipine in the management of preeclampsia: maternal and fetal effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 417–24.
126Marshman, LA, Aspoas, AR, Rai, MS, Chawda, SJ. The implications of ISAT and ISUIA for the management of cerebral aneurysms during pregnancy. Neurosurg Rev 2007; 30: 177–80.
127Unruptured intracranial aneurysms-risk of rupture and risks of surgical intervention. International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1725–733.
128Sheehan, HL. Postpartum necrosis of the anterior pituitary. J Path Bacteriol 1937; 45: 189–14.
129DiZerega, G, Kletzky, OA, Mishell, DR Jr. Diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome using a sequential pituitary stimulation test. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1978; 132: 348–53.
130Ozbey, N, Inanc, S, Aral, F, Azezli, A, Orhan, Y, Sencer, E, et al. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of 40 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Isr J Med Sci 1994; 30: 826–29.
131Lakhdar, AA, McLaren, EH, Davda, NS, McKay, EJ, Rubin, PC. Pituitary failure from Sheehan's syndrome in the puerperium. Two case reports. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987; 94: 998–99.
132Roberts, DM. Sheehan's syndrome. Am Fam Physician 1988; 37: 223–27.
133Boulanger, E, Pagniez, D, Roueff, S, Binaut, R, Valat, AS, Provost, N, et al. Sheehan syndrome presenting as early post-partum hyponatraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 2714–715.
134Shoji, M, Kimura, T, Ota, K, Ohta, M, Sato, K, Yamamoto, T, et al. Cortical laminar necrosis and central pontine myelinolysis in a patient with Sheehan syndrome and severe hyponatremia. Intern Med 1996; 35: 427–31.
135Putterman, C, Almog, Y, Caraco, Y, Gross, DJ, Ben-Chetrit, E. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in Sheehan's syndrome: a rare cause of postpartum hyponatremia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165: 1330–333.
136Vance, ML. Hypopituitarism. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1651–662.
137Dejager, S, Gerber, S, Foubert, L, Turpin, G. Sheehan's syndrome: differential diagnosis in the acute phase. J Intern Med 1998; 244: 261–66.
138Banzal, S, Ayoola, EA, Banzal, S. Sheehan's syndrome in Saudi Arabia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1999; 66: 181–82.
139Otsuka, F, Kageyama, J, Ogura, T, Hattori, T, Makino, H. Sheehan's syndrome of more than 30 years’ duration: an endocrine and MRI study of 6 cases. Endocr J 1998; 45: 451–58.
140Dash, RJ, Gupta, V, Suri, S. Sheehan's syndrome: clinical profile, pituitary hormone responses and computed sellar tomography. Aust N Z J Med 1993; 23: 2631.
141Lamberts, SW, de Herder, WW, Van Der Lely, AJ. Pituitary insufficiency. Lancet 1998; 352: 127–34.
142Orrego, JJ, Barkan, AL. Pituitary disorders. Drug treatment options. Drugs 2000; 59: 93106.
143Moore, KC, Donaldson, DL, Ideus, PL, Gifford, RA, Moore, WV. Clinical diagnoses of children with extremely short stature and their response to growth hormone. J Pediatr 1993; 122: 687–92.
144Lee, W, Ginsburg, KA, Cotton, DB, Kaufman, RH. Squamous and trophoblastic cells in the maternal pulmonary circulation identified by invasive hemodynamic monitoring during the peripartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 9991001.
145Duff, P, Engelsgjerd, B, Zingery, LW, Huff, RW, Montiel, MM. Hemodynamic observations in a patient with intrapartum amniotic fluid embolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 146: 112–15.
146Clark, SL. New concepts of amniotic fluid embolism: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1990; 45: 360–68.
147Clark, SL, Pavlova, Z, Greenspoon, J, Horenstein, J, Phelan, JP. Squamous cells in the maternal pulmonary circulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 154: 104106.
148Clark, SL, Hankins, GD, Dudley, DA, Dildy, GA, Porter, TF. Amniotic fluid embolism: analysis of the national registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172: 1158–167.
149Kumar, V, Khatwani, M, Aneja, S, Kapur, KK. Paradoxical amniotic fluid embolism presenting before caesarean section in a woman with an atrial septal defect. Int J Obstet Anesth 2010; 19: 9498. Epub 2009 Aug 21.
150Prosper, SC, Goudge, CS, Lupo, VR. Recombinant factor VIIa to successfully manage disseminated intravascular coagulation from amniotic fluid embolism. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 524–25.
151Thomas, GO, Dutton, RP, Hemlock, B, Stein, DM, Hyder, M, Shere-Wolfe, R, et al. Thromboembolic complications associated with factor VIIa administration. J.Trauma 2007; 62: 564–69.
152Ducros, A, Boukobza, M, Porcher, R, Sarov, M, Valade, D, Bousser, MG. The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A prospective series of 67 patients. Brain 2007; 130: 30913101.
153Singhal, AB, Bernstein, RA. Postpartum angiopathy and other cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. Neurocrit Care 2005; 3: 9197.
154Williams, TL, Lukovits, TG, Harris, BT, Harker Rhodes, C. A fatal case of postpartum cerebral angiopathy with literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2007; 275: 6777.
155Klein, M, Fesl, G, Pfister, HW, Straube, A, Bruckmann, H, Hoffmann, LA, et al. Intra-arterial nimodipine in progressive postpartum cerebral angiopathy. Cephalalgia 2009; 29: 279–82.
156Konstantinopoulos, PA, Mousa, S, Khairallah, R, Mtanos, G. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy: an important diagnostic consideration in the postpartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 375–77.
157Somoye, G, Samyraju, M, Thorpe, J, Sriemevan, A. Diagnosing postpartum cerebral angiopathy. J Obstet Gynaecol 2009; 29: 248–49.
158Calado, S, Vale-Santos, J, Lima, C, Viana-Baptista, M. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy: vasospasm, vasculitis or both? Cerebrovasc Dis 2004; 18: 340–41.
159Okamoto, Y, Yamamoto, T. Postpartum angiopathy associated with reversible borderzone ischemia. Intern Med 2008; 47: 309–12.
160Singhal, AB, Kimberly, WT, Schaefer, PW, Hedley-Whyte, ET. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 8–2009. A 36-year-old woman with headache, hypertension, and seizure 2 weeks post partum. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1126–137.
161Song, JK, Fisher, S, Seifert, TD, Cacayorin, ED, Alexandrov, AV, Malkoff, MD, et al. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy: atypical features and treatment with intracranial balloon angioplasty. Neuroradiology 2004; 46: 10221026.
162Geraghty, JJ, Hoch, DB, Robert, ME, Vinters, HV. Fatal puerperal cerebral vasospasm and stroke in a young woman. Neurology 1991; 41: 1145–147.
163Ursell, MR, Marras, CL, Farb, R, Rowed, DW, Black, SE, Perry, JR. Recurrent intracranial hemorrhage due to postpartum cerebral angiopathy: implications for management. Stroke 1998; 29: 1995–998.
164Birnbaum, J, Hellmann, DB. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Arch Neurol 2009; 66: 704709.
165Langlois, PF, Sharon, GE, Gawryl, MS. Plasma concentrations of complement-activation complexes correlate with disease activity in patients diagnosed with isolated central nervous system vasculitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989; 83: 1116.
166Yasuda, Y, Matsuda, I, Kang, Y, Saiga, T, Kameyama, M. Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system first presenting as intracranial hemorrhage during cesarean section. Intern Med 1993; 32: 745–48.
167Barrionuevo, MJ, Bronsteen, RA, Eilender, LM, Wright, DJ, Goyert, GL. Idiopathic granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system in pregnancy: the first case report. J Matern Fetal Med 1997; 6: 5860.
168Zunker, P, Ley-Pozo, J, Louwen, F, Schuierer, G, Holzgreve, W, Ringelstein, EB. Cerebral hemodynamics in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995; 6: 411–15.
169Zeeman, GG, Fleckenstein, JL, Twickler, DM, Cunningham, FG. Cerebral infarction in eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 714–20.
170Belfort, MA, Saade, GR, Grunewald, C, Dildy, GA, Abedejos, P, Herd, JA, et al. Association of cerebral perfusion pressure with headache in women with pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 814–21.
171Hinchey, J, Chaves, C, Appignani, B, Breen, J, Pao, L, Wang, A, et al. A reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 494500.
172Servillo, G, Striano, P, Striano, S, Tortora, F, Boccella, P, De Robertis, E, et al. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in critically ill obstetric patients. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29: 2323–326.
173Chobanian, AV, Bakris, GL, Black, HR, Cushman, WC, Green, LA, Izzo, JL Jr, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003; 42: 1206–252.
174Lowe, SA. Diagnostic radiography in pregnancy: risks and reality. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 191–96.
175American College of Radiology. Administration of contrast medium to pregnant or potentially pregnant patients. ACR manual on contrast media 2008 Oct(Version 6): 61–63.
176Kanal, E, Barkovich, AJ, Bell, C, Borgstede, JP, Bradley, WG Jr, Froelich, JW, et al. ACR guidance document for safe MR practices: 2007. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007; 188: 1447–474.
177de Swiet, M. Maternal mortality: confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182: 760–66.
178Lamy, C, Hamon, JB, Coste, J, Mas, JL. Ischemic stroke in young women: risk of recurrence during subsequent pregnancies. French Study Group on Stroke in Pregnancy. Neurology 2000; 55: 269–74.
179Duley, L, Henderson-Smart, D, Knight, M, King, J. Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: systematic review. Br Med J 2001; 322: 329–33.
180Rumbold, AR, Crowther, CA, Haslam, RR, Dekker, GA, Robinson, JS, ACTS Study Group. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1796–806.
181Euser, AG, Cipolla, MJ. Magnesium sulfate for the treatment of eclampsia: a brief review. Stroke 2009; 40: 1169–175.
182Helms, AK, Drogan, O, Kittner, SJ. First trimester stroke prophylaxis in pregnant women with a history of stroke. Stroke 2009; 40: 1158–161.
183Perkin, RM, Levin, DL, Clark, R. Serum salicylate levels and right-to-left ductus shunts in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr 1980; 96: 721–26.
184Bergui, M, Bradac, GB. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in late pregnancy. Stroke 2006; 37: 764; author reply 764–5.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE AND PREGNANCY

  • MAYA KATZ (a1), JENNIFER LESKO (a2), KATHRYN F KIRCHOFF-TORRES (a1), VICTOR ZACH (a1) and STEVEN R LEVINE (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.