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Germ line transformation of mammals by pronuclear microinjection

  • T. Rülicke (a1) and U. Hübscher (a1)
    • Published online by Cambridge University Press: 10 January 2001


he most popular approach for generating transgenic mammals is the direct injection of transgenes into one pronucleus of a fertilized oocyte. In the past 15 years microinjection has been successfully applied in laboratory as well as in farm animals. The frequency of transgenic founders, although highly different between the species, is efficient enough to render this technique applicable to a wide range of mammals. The expression levels and patterns of a transgene are initially influenced by the construction of the transgene. However, the overall phenotype of a transgenic organism is influenced by several genetic and environmental factors. Due to the features of this technique not all of the genetic factors can be experimentally controlled by the scientist. In this article we will emphasize some peculiarities which have to be taken into account for the successful performance of transgenesis by pronuclear microinjection



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