Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

TILLAGE AND RESIDUE MULCHING EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)–TORIA (BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS) CROPPING SYSTEM IN FRAGILE ECOSYSTEM OF NORTHEAST INDIAN HIMALAYAS

  • ANUP DAS (a1), P. K. GHOSH (a2), M. R. VERMA (a3), G. C. MUNDA (a1), S. V. NGACHAN (a1) and D. MANDAL (a4)...

Summary

The north eastern region (NER) of India receives a high amount of rainfall (2450 mm) both in terms of intensity and frequency. Most of the precipitation goes waste because of improper conservation measures and inadequate rainwater harvesting. Growing a second crop during winter (rabi) season on hill slopes and uplands without moisture conservation measure is almost impossible. A simple and very low-cost technique of in situ soil moisture conservation in maize (Zea mays L.)–toria (Brassica campestris L.) system has been developed using residue of preceding rainy season maize crop and mulching with locally available weed biomass Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Six residue mulching combinations tested were viz. control, Maize stalk cover (MSC), MSC + Ambrosia sp. 5 t/ha, MSC + Ambrosia sp. 10 t/ha, MSC + farmyard manure (FYM) 10 t/ha and MSC + Ambrosia sp. 5 t/ha + poultry manure 5 t/ha under zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) systems. Results showed that in situ residue retention of preceding maize crop along with green biomass of Ambrosia sp., applied before sowing of toria, maintained optimum soil moisture for good growth and higher yield of toria. The soil moisture content was consistently higher under residue mulched plots than that under control. All the residue mulching measures recorded higher crop yield for maize and toria than those observed under residue removal (control). The productivity of toria was enhanced by about 99%, only due to retention of MSC as mulch. Mulching with MSC + Ambrosia sp. 5 t/ha + poultry manure 5 t/ha recorded the highest seed yield of toria (four-year average: 641 kg/ha), which was 228% and 64% higher than no mulching (control) and MSC alone. MSC + FYM 10 t/ha (568.3 t/ha) and MSC + Ambrosia sp. 10 t/ha (517.4 t/ha) were found equally effective and produced significantly higher toria yield than that of control. MSC + Ambrosia mulch 10 t/ha gave the highest net returns and B:C ratio of the maize–toria system. The overall B:C ratios were better under ZT than CT. Thus, the study indicated that the integrated management of crop residues and weed biomass (Ambrosia sp.) under ZT created favourable soil moisture to support double cropping with high yield in hill eco-system of northeastern Indian Himalayas.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: anup_icar@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
Acharya, C. L., Hati, K. M. and Bandyopadhay, K. K. (2005). Mulches. In Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 521532 (Eds Hillel, D., Rozenzweig, C., Pawlson, D. S., Scow, K. M., Sorger, M. J., Sparks, D. L. and Hatfield, J.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Publication.
Awasthi, U. D., Singh, R. B. and Dubey, S. D. (2007). Effect of sowing date and moisture conservation practices on growth and yield of Indian toria. Indian Journal of Agronomy 52:151153.
Baruah, N. (1994). Effect of Organic Sources and Moisture Conservation Practices on Ric –Mustard Sequence, M.Sc (Thesis), Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, India.
Bauer, A. and Kucera, H. (1978). Effect of Tillage on Some Soil Physicochemical Properties and on Annually Cropped Spring Wheat Yields, Bulletin 506, Agricultural Experiment Station, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.
Blevins, R. L. and Frye, W. W. (1993). Conservation tillage: an ecological approach to soil management. Advances in Agronomy 51:3378.
Bristow, K. L. and Abrecht, D. G. (1989). The physical environment of two semi-arid tropical soils with partial surface mulch cover. Australian Journal of Soil Research 27:577587.
Brown, H. J., Cruise, R. M. and Colbin, T. S. (1989). Tillage system effects on crop growth and production costs for a corn-soybean rotation. Journal of Production Agriculture 2:273279.
Campbell, C. A. and Zentner, R. P. (1997). Crop production and soil organic matter in long-term crop rotations in the semi-arid northern Great Plains of Canada. In Soil Organic Matter in Temper-ate Agroecosystems, 317334 (Eds Paul, E. A., Elliott, E. T., Paustian, K. and Cole, C. V.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Chatterjee, B. N. and Mandal, S. S. (1996). Potassium nutrition under intensive cropping. Journal of Potassium Research 12:358364.
FAO. (1990). Comparative analysis of organic manures. Project Field Document, v. 24. Rome: FAO.
Feng, F. X., Huang, G. B., Yu, A. Z., Chai, Q., Tao, M. and Li, J. (2009). Effects of different conservation tillage measures on winter wheat water use in Wuei oasis irrigated area. Chinese Applied Ecology 20:10601065.
Gebre, H. and Georgis, K. (1988). Sustaining Crop Production in the Semi-Arid Areas of Ethiopia. Paper presented at the EJAS 10th Anniversary Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ghosh, P. K., Dayal, D., Bandyopadhay, K. K. and Mohanty, M. (2006). Evaluation of straw and polythene mulch for enhancing productivity of irrigated summer groundnut. Field Crops Research 99:7686.
Griffith, D. R., Mannering, E. J., West, T. D. and Parsons, D. D. (1988). Long-term tillage and rotation effects on corn growth and yield on high and low organic matter, poorly drained soils. Agronomy Journal 80:562599.
Gupta, J. P. and Gupta, G. K. (1986). Effect of tillage and mulching on soil environment and cowpea seedling growth under arid condition. Soil and Tillage Research 7:233240.
Gupta, Raj K. and Seth, A. (2007). A review of resource conserving technologies or sustainable management of the rice–wheat cropping systems of the Indo Gangetic Plains. Crop Protection 26:436447.
Guzha, A. C. (2004). Effect of tillage on soil micro-relief, surface depression storage and soil water storage. Soil and Tillage Research 76:105114.
Holt, R. F., Timmons, D. R., Voorhees, W. B. and Van Doren, C. A. (1964). Importance of stored soil moisture to the growth of corn in the dry to moist sub-humid climatic zone. Agronomy Journal 56:8285.
Jaggi, I. K. (1987). Increasing production stability of rainfed paddy in M.P. Indian Farming 37:1819.
Jat, M. L., Gathala, M. K., Ladha, J. K., Saharawat, Y. S., Jat, A. S., Kumar, Vipin, Sharma, S. K., Kumar, V. and Gupta, R. (2009). Evaluation of precession land leveling and double zero-till systems in the rice-wheat rotation: water use, productivity, profitability and soil physical properties. Soil and Tillage Research 105:112121.
Josa, R. and Hereter, A. (2005). Effects of tillage systems in dryland farming on near-surface water content during the late winter period. Soil Tillage Research 82:173183.
Karlen, D. L., Wallenhaupt, N. C., Erbach, D. C., Berry, E. C., Swan, J. B., Eash, N. S. and Jordahl, J. L. (1994). Crop residue effects on soil quality following 10 years of no-till corn. Soil and Tillage Research 31:149167.
Kasam, A. (2011). The Future of Farming: What Needs to Change? The Sixth Hugh Bunting Memorial Lecture, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire, UK. Available at: www.taa.org.uk/assets/pubs (accessed: December, 2012).
Kumar, A. (2000). Effect of different tillage system on wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop. Indian Journal of Agronomy 45:114117.
Kuswanha, C. P., Tripathi, S. K. and Singh, K. P. (2001). Soil organic matter and water stable aggregates under different tillage and residue condition in tropical dry land agro ecosystem. Applied Soil Ecology 16:229241.
Maduakor, H. O., Lal, R. and Opare-Nadi, O. A. (1984). Effects of methods of seedbed preparation and mulching on the growth and yield of white yam on an Ultisol in southeast Nigeria. Field Crops Research 9:119130.
Mandal, K. G., Misra, A. K., Hati, K. M., Bandyopadhyay, K. K., Ghosh, P. K. and Mohanty, M. (2004). Rice residue management options and effects on soil properties and crop productivity. Food Agriculture Environment 2:224231.
Mbagwu, J. S. C. (1991). Mulching an ultisol in southeastern Nigeria: effects on physical properties and maize and cowpea yields. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 57:517526.
Mesfine, T., Abebe, G. and Al-Tawaha, A. M. (2005). Effect of reduced tillage and crop residue ground cover on yield and water use efficiency of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) under semi-arid conditions of Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1:152160.
NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi). (2012). Management of Crop Residues in the Context of Conservation Agriculture. Policy Paper No. 58, p. 12, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Okigbo, B. N., and Lal, R. (1980). Residue mulches, intercropping and agrisilviculture potential in tropical Africa, in Basic Techniques in Ecological Farming. In IFOAM Conference, 54–69 (Ed S. Hill), Montreal, Canada.
Philips, R. E. (1984). Soil moisture. In No-Tillage Agriculture: Principles and Practices, 6686 (Eds Phillips, R. E. and Phillips, S. H.). New York, USA: Van Nostrand-Reinheld.
Pratibha, G., Pillai, K. G. and Satyanarayana, V. (1998). Effects of tillage induced to crops after puddle rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 68:6265.
Rao, S. S. and Shaktawat, M. S. (2002). Effect of organic matter, phosphorous and gypsum on groundnut (Arachis hypogea) production under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy 47:234241.
Regar, P. L., Rao, S. S. and Joshi, N. L. (2007). Effects of in-situ moisture conservation practices on productivity of rainfed Indian toria. Indian Journal of Agronomy 52:148150.
Saha, S, Chakraborty, D, Sharma, A. R., Tomar, R. K., Bhadraray, S., Behera, U. K., Purkayastha, T. J., Garg, R. N. and Kalra, N. (2010). Effect of tillage and residue management on soil physical properties and crop productivity in maize (Zea mays)–Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) system. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 80:679685.
Satapathy, K. K. (2003). Soil and water conservation measures for sustainable hill agriculture. In Approaches for Increasing Productivity in Hill and Mountain Ecosystem, 313 (Eds Bhatt, B. P., Bujarbaruah, K. M., Sharma, Y. P. and Patiram, ). Umiam, India: ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region.
Schomberg, H. H., Steiner, J. L. and Unger, P. W. (1994). Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of crop residues: residue quality and water effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58:372381.
Schoningh, E. and Alkamper, J. (1984). Effects of different mulch materials on soil properties and yield of maize and cowpea in the eastern Amazon Oxisol. In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on the Humid Tropics, Belem, Brazil: EMBRAPA.
Sharma, A. R., Singh, R. and Dhyani, S. K. (2005). Conservation tillage and mulching for optimizing productivity in maize–wheat cropping system in the outer western Himalyan region – a review. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 33:3541.
Sharma, P. K. and Acharya, C. L. (2000). Carry-over effect of residual soil moisture with mulching and conservation tillage practices for sowing of rainfed wheat (Triticum aestivum L) in north-west India. Soil and Tillage Research 57:4352.
Smil, V. (1999). Crop residues: agriculture's largest harvest. Bioscience 49:299308.
So, H. B. and Ringrose-Voase, A. J. (1996). Management of clay soils for lowland rice based cropping systems: an overview of ACIAR Project 8938. ACIAR Proceeding 70:1324.
Stevension, F. J. (1986). Cycles of Soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulphur Macronutrients. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.
Tanaka, D. L. and Anderson, R. L. (1997). Soil water conservation and precipitation storage efficiency of conservation tillage system. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 52:363367.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed