Skip to main content Accessibility help

Plant Nematodes and Sustainability in Tropical Agriculture

  • Sam L. J. Page (a1) and John Bridge (a1)


Although plant nematodes are ubiquitous and pathogenic to a wide range of crops, research into these pests in the tropics has been concentrated on commodity crops. While modern intensive tropical agriculture has become unsustainable and often relies on the use of toxic nematicides to control damaging populations of plant nematodes, many traditional subsistence farmers have been able to suppress nematodes by promoting crop diversity and selecting for tolerance and resistance. This paper gives examples of sustainable systems which suppress nematodes. Other examples of once sustainable systems in which nematode problems now occur are discussed and reasons for this instability suggested. The need for farmers to retain responsibility for the development of sustainable systems is stressed. Nematologists and other plant protectionists are encouraged to take a wider view of the complex issues that affect the sustainability of agriculture in the tropics.

Los nemátodos de las plantas y la agricultura continua



Hide All
Allard, R. W. (1990). The genetics of host-pathogen coevolution: Implication for genetic resource conservation. journal of Heredity 81:16.
Alexander, J. & Coursey, D. J. (1969). The domestication of yams. In The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, 405425 (Eds Ucko, P. J. and Dimbleby, C. W.). London: Gerald Duckworth.
Altieri, M. A. (1991). How best can we use biodiversity in agroecosystems? Outlook on Agriculture 20:1523.
Anderson, J. (1989). Agricultural biotechnology: Growing concern? Trends in Biotechnology 7:196197.
Atwal, A. S. & Mangar, A. (1969). Repellent action of root exudates of Sesame orientale against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Heteroderidae; Nematoda). Indian journal of Entomology 31:286.
Azmi, M. I. (1984). Effect of Pratylenchus Zeae on seedling growth of su-babool (Leucaena leucocephala) and its control with phorate. Nematologica 30:105107.
Azmi, M. I. (1985). Occurence and effect of Meloidogyne incognita on seedling growth of su-babool, Leucaena leucocephala. Myforest 21:101103.
Beets, W. C. (1981). Multiple Cropping and Tropical Farming Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Bourke, R. M. (1982). Sweet potato in Papua New Guinea. In Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Sweet Potato in Taiwan, 4557 (Eds Villareal, R. L. and Griggs, T. D.). Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.
Bridge, J. (1978). Nematodes. In Pest Control in Tropical Root Crops, 163168. PANS Manual No. 4. London: Centre for Oversea Pest Research.
Bridge, J. (1988). Plant nematode pests of bananas in East Africa with particular reference to Tanzania. In INIBAP. Nematodes and the Borer Weevil in Bananas: present status of research and outlook. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Bujumbura, Burundi 7–11 December 1987, 35–39.
Bridge, J. & Page, S. L. J. (1982). The rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, on deep water rice (Oyzae saliva subsp. indica). Revue de Nematologie 5:225232.
Bridge, J. & Page, S. L. J. (1984). Plant nematode pests of crops in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Plant in the Tropics 1:99109.
Bridge, J., Mortimer, J. J. & Jackson, G. V. H. (1983). Hirschmanniella miticausa n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) and its pathogenicity on taro (Colocasia esculenta). Revue de Nematologie 6:285290.
Bridge, J., Luc, M. & Plowright, R. A. (1990). Nematode parasites of rice. In Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture, 69108 (Eds Luc., M, Sikora, R. A. and Bridge, J.) Wallingford: CAB International, UK.
Buangsuwon, D., Tonboon-ek, P., Rujirachoon, G., Braun, A. J. & Taylor, A. L. (1971). Nematodes. In Rice Diseases and Pests of Thailand, 6167.
Butler, E. J. (1913). Diseases of Rice. Bulletin 34 Pusa: Agricultural Research Institute.
Chambers, R. (1990). Reversals, institutions and change. In Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research, 181195 (Eds Pacey, A. and Thrupp, L. A.). London: Intermediate Technology.
Chunram, C. (1981). Progress report on the root-knot nematode studies in Thailand. Proceedings of the Third Research Planning Conference on Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne spp, Region VI, July 20–24, Jakarta, 1981, 97103.
Clifford, B. C., Carver, T. L. W. & Roderick, H. W. (1985). The implications of general resistance for physiological investigations. In Genetic Basis of Biochemical Mechanisms of Plant Disease, 4384 (Eds Groth, J. V. and Bushnell, W. R.). St Paul, Minnesota: American Phytopathological Society.
Cook, R. J. & Baker, K. F. (1983). The Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society.
Cook, R. & Evans, K. (1987). Resistance and tolerance. In Principles and Practice of Nematode Control in Crops, 179221 (Eds Brown, R. H. and Kerry, B. R.). Australia: Academic Press.
Davies, K. G., de Leij, F. A. A. M. & Kerry, B. R. (1991). Microbial agents for the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes in tropical agriculture. Tropical Pest Management 37:303320.
Deshaprabhu, S. B. (Ed.) (1966). The Wealth of India: Raw materials. Vol. 7. New Delhi: Publishing and Information Directorate, CSIR.
Diomande, M. (1984). Response of upland rice cultivars to Meloidogyne species. Revue de Nematologie 7:5763.
D'Souza, E. J. (1986). Control of root knot nematode in the large mound cultivation system of sweet potato in Papua New Guinea. MSc Dissertation, Reading University.
Enyi, B. A. C. (1977). Analysis ofgrowth and tuber yield in sweet potato cvs. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 88:421430.
Flor, H. H. (1956). The complementary genetic systems in flax and flax rust. Advances in Genetics 8:2954.
Franklin, M. T. (1973). Meloidogyne nasi. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 19 Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Fukuoka, M. (1985). Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy. Tokyo and New York: Japan Publications.
Gibbon, D. (1991). Proposal for the establishment of a sustainable agriculture research centre at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia. (Unpublished.)
Gichure, E. & Ondieki, J. J. (1977). A survey of banana nematodes in Kenya. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankeiten und Pftanzenschutz 84:724728.
Hooper, D. J. & Stone, A. R. (1981). Role of wild plants and weeds in the ecology of plant-parasitic nematodes. In Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation, 199216 (Ed. Thresh, J. M). Bath: Pitman Press.
Huang, C. S. & Huang, S. P. (1972). Bionomics of white-tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi in rice florets and developing grains. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 13:110.
Ichinohe, M. (1988). Current research on the major nematode problems in Japan. Journal of Nematology 20:184190.
INIBAP (1986). Banana Research in Eastern Africa. Proposal for a Regional Research and Development Network. Montpellier, France: INIBAP.
Jatala, P. & Bridge, J. (1990). Nematode parasites of root and tuber crops. In Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture, 137181 (Eds Luc, M., Sikora, R. A. and Bridge, J.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Jennings, P. R., Coffman, W. R. & Kauffman, H. E. (1979). Rice Improvement. Philippines: IRRI.
Kavuma, J. B. K. (1987). Degradation of soil fertility: the effects on the production of cooking bananas in Uganda. International Cooperation for Effective Plantain and Banana Research: Proceedings of the Third Meeting, Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 2731 May.
Kuwahara, M. & Iyatomi, K. (1970). Studies on the bionomics of the rice root nematode Hirschmanniella imamuri Sher and Hirschmanniella oryzae (Soltwedel) Luc and Goodey, with special reference to its mode of life and population dynamics. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 14:117121.
Kyo, M., Miyauchi, Y., Fujimoto, T. & Mayama, S. (1990). Production of nematicidal compounds by hairy root cultures of Tagetes patula L. Plant Cell Reports 9:393397.
Lai, R. & Greenland, D. J. (1979). Soil Physical Properties and Crop Production in the Tropics. Chichester: Wiley.
Lenne, J. M. (1990). Sweet Potato Disease Survey. Agricultural Consultant International Germplasm Associates. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.
Luc, M., Sikora, R. A. & Bridge, J. (1990). Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Machon, J. E. & Hunt, D. J. (1985). Pratylenchus goodeyi. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Set 8, No. 120. Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Mackauer, M. (1988). Biological control in the context of systems management. In Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest Problems in Africa, 6884 (Eds Yaninek, J. S. and Herren, H. R.). Ibadan: IITA.
Miah, N. M., Miah, M. A. A., Nasiruddin, M. & Chowdhury, N. H. (1986). Recently improved varieties for direct seeded aus and deepwater aman seasons. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Experiences with Modern Rice Cultivation in Bangladesh, 5–7 April, 7580. Dacca: Bangladesh Rice Research Institute.
Miah, S. A. & Mondai, A. H. (1988). Nematodes in deep water rice. Proceedings of the 1987 International Deep Water Rice Workshop, 575582. The Philippines: IRRI.
Mollison, B. (1990). Permaculture: A Practical Guide fora Sustainable Future. Washington: Island Press.
Mondai, A. H. & Miah, S. A. (1987). Ufra problem in low lying areas of Bangladesh. International Rice Research Newsletter 12:2930.
Mortimer, J. J., Bridge, J. & Jackson, G. V. H. (1981). Hirschmaniella sp. an endoparasitic nematode associated with miti-miti disease of taro corms in the Solomon Islands. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 29:911.
Niederhauser, J. S. (1991). Phytopthora infestans: the Mexican connection. In Phytopthora, 2545 (Eds Lucas, J. A., Shattock, R. C., Shaw, D. S. and Cooke, L. R.). Cambridge: University Press.
Noel, G. R. (1986). The soybean cyst nematode. In Cyst Nematodes (Eds Lamberti, F. and Taylor, C. E.). NATO ASI Series. New York: Plenum Press.
Ogbuji, R. O. (1979). Shifting cultivation discourages nematodes. World Crops 31:113.
Page, S. L. J. (1985). Meloidogyne acronea. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Set 8, No. 114. Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Page, S. L. J. & Page, H. E. (1991). Western hegemony over African agriculture in Southern Rhodesia and its continuing threat to food security in independent Zimbabwe. Journal of Agriculture and Human Values 3:418.
Patel, M. Z., Saelea, J. & Jackson, G. V. H. (1984). Breeding strategies for controlling diseases of taro in the Solomon Islands. Proceedings-Sixth Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, Lima, Peru, 21–26 February 1983, 143–149.
Perez, A. T. & Nasiruddin, M. (1975). Field notes on the Rayadas: a flood tolerant deep water rice of Bangladesh. In Proceedings of the International Seminar on Deep Water Rice, August 21–26, 1974, 8791. Joydebpur, Dacca, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Rice Research Institute.
Plowright, R. A. (1992). Screening for resistance to stem nematode Ditelenchus angustus in deep-water rice. Presented at the Association of Applied Biologists Tropical Nematology Meeting,8 April.Chatham, UK:Natural Resources Institute.
Prasad, J. S., Panwar, M. S. & Rao, Y. S. (1986). Screening of some rice cultivars against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Indian Journal of Nematology 16:112113.
Purseglove, J. W. (1984). Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. Harlow: Longman.
Purseglove, J. W. (1985). Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Harlow: Longman.
Rahman, M. L. (1987). Source of ufra-resistant deep water rice. International Rice Research Newsletter 12(1):8.
Richards, P. (1985). The Indigenous Revolution: Ecology and Food Production in West Africa. London: Hutchinson.
Roberts, P. A. (1992). Current status of the availability, development and use of host plant resistance to nematodes. journal of Nematology 24:213227.
Salazar, R. (1992). Stimulating crop diversity. BBC The Farming World 1724, Talks List, week, 20, 21 May 1992.
Sasser, J. N. & Freckman, D. W. (1987). The world perspective on nematology: the role of society. In Vistas on Nematology: A Commemoration of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Society of Nematologists, 714 (Eds Veech, J. A. and Dickson, D. W.). Raleigh Society of Nematologists Inc.
Segeren, -V. d.Oever, H. & Sanchit-Bekker, M. L. (1984). Observations on Meloidogyne oryzae Maas, Sanders and Dede 1978 in irrigated rice in Suriname. Surinaamse Iandbouw 32:5159.
Shepherd, K. 1957. Banana cultivars in East Africa. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 34:277286.
Shiga, T. & Takemata, T. (1981). Distribution of sweet potato clones with resistance to root-knot nematodes in the Pacific Islands. Proceedings of the Third Research Planning Conference on Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne spp. Region VI, July 20–24, 1981, Jakarta, 6468.
Sikora, R. A. (1982). Globodera rostochiensis on potato in the Philippines. Zeitschrift für pflanzenkrankheiten und pllanzenschutz 89:532533.
Southwood, T. R. E. (1984). Insect-plant adaptations. In Origins and Development of Plant Adaptation. Ciba Foundation Symposium 102, 138147. London: Pitman.
Stover, R. H. & Simmonds, N. W. (1987). Bananas, Harlow: Longman.
Subramaniyan, S., Balasubramanian, P., Sundarababur, R., Naganathan, T. G., Lakshmanan, P. L., Rajendran, G., Sivakumur, C. V. & Vadivetu, S. (1989). Present status of the potato cyst nematodes in Niligris, Tamil Nadu. Current Science 58:701702.
Trapnell, C. G. & Clothier, J. N. (1957). The Soils, Vegetation and Agricultural Systems of North-Eastern Rhodesia, Report of the Ecological Survey. Lusaka: Government Printer.
Veech, J. A. (1981). Plant resistance to nematodes. In Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Vol. III, 377403 (Eds Zuckerman, B. M. & Rohde, R. A.). London: Academic Press.
Wilson, G. F. (1986). Status of bananas and plantains in West Africa. In Banana and Plantain Breeding Strategies. ACIAR Proceedings No. 21, 2935 (Eds Persley, G. J. and De Langhe, E. A.). Canberra: ACIAR.
Young, A. (1989). Agroforestry for Soil Conservation. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Plant Nematodes and Sustainability in Tropical Agriculture

  • Sam L. J. Page (a1) and John Bridge (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed