Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY AND EARLY GROWTH OF FOUR CACAO GENOTYPES AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SHADE REGIMES UNDER WEST AFRICAN DRY AND WET SEASON CONDITIONS

  • K. ACHEAMPONG (a1), P. HADLEY (a2) and A. J. DAYMOND (a2)

Summary

The physiological performance of four cacao clones was examined under three artificial shade regimes over the course of a year in Ghana. Plants under light shade had significantly higher photosynthetic rates in the rainy seasons whereas in the dry season there was a trend of higher photosynthetic rates under heavy shade. The results imply that during the wet seasons light was the main limiting factor to photosynthesis whereas in the dry season vapour pressure deficit was the major factor limiting photosynthesis through stomatal regulation. Leaf area was generally lower under heavier shade but the difference between shade treatments varied between clones. Such differences in leaf area allocation appeared to underlie genotypic differences in final biomass production in response to shade. The results suggest that shade for young cacao should be provided based on the current ambient environment and genotype.

Copyright

Corresponding author

§Corresponding author. Email: oyacheampong@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
Ahenkorah, Y., Akrofi, G. and Adri, A. K. (1974). The end of the first shade and manurial experiment at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. Journal of Horticultural Science 49:4349.
Babin, R., Gerben, M., Hoopen, T., Cilas, C., Enjalric, F., YedeGendre, P. Gendre, P. and Lumaret, J. (2010). Impact of shade on the spatial distribution of Sahlbergella singularis in traditional cocoa agroforests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12:6979.
Da Matta, F. M., Loos, R. A., Rodrigues, R. and Barros, R. S. (2001). Actual and potential photosynthetic rates of tropical crop species. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal 13:2432.
Daymond, A. J., Tricker, P. J. and Hadley, P. (2011). Genotypic variation in photosynthesis in cacao is correlated with stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen. Biologia Plantarum 55:99104.
de Almeida, A.-A. F. D. and Valle, R. R. (2007). Ecophysiology of the cacao tree. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 19:425448.
Galyuon, I. K. A., Mcdavid, C. R., Lopez, F. B. and Spence, J. A. (1996a). The effect of irradiance level on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): I. Growth and leaf adaptations. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 73:2328.
Galyuon, I. K. A., Mcdavid, C. R., Lopez, F. B. and Spence, J. A. (1996b). The effect of irridiance level on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 73:2933.
Hutcheon, W. V. (1981). Physiological Studies on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Ghana, Ph.D thesis, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) (2008). Annual Forecasts of Production and Consumption and Estimates of Production Levels to Achieve Equilibrium in the World Cocoa Market. Annual Report. Berlin, Germany: ICCO.
Ofori-Frimpong, K., Asase, A. and Yelibora, M. A. (2007). Cocoa Farming and Biodiversity in Ghana. Annual Report, EarthWatch Institute. Boston, MA: EarthWatch Institute.
Opoku-Ameyaw, K., Baah, F., Gyedu-Akoto, E. and Anchirina, V. (2010). Shade Management. New Tafo Akim, Ghana: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana.
Rada, F., Jaimez, R. E., Garcia- Nunez, C., Azocar, A. and Ramirez, M. E. (2005). Water relations and gas exchange in Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficits. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia (LUZ) 22:105112.
Raja Harun, R. M. and Hardwick, K. (1988a). The effect of different temperatures and water vapour pressure deficits on photosynthesis and transpiration of cacao leaves. In 10th International Cocoa Research Conference, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 17–23 May 1987, 211–214.
Raja Harun, R. M. and Hardwick, K. (1988b). The effects of prolonged exposure to different light intensities on the photosynthesis of cacao leaves. In 10th International Cocoa Research Conference, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 17–23 May 1987, 205–209.
Sena Gomes, A. R., Kozlowski, T. T. and Reich, P. B. (1987). Some physiological responses of Theobroma cacao var. catongo seedlings to air humidity. New Phytologist 107:591602.
Serrano, P. and Biehl, B. (1996). Light stress on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fluorometric measurements under different light conditions in the field. In 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 17–23 November 1996, 583–588.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed