Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ADULT TREES OF CRIOLLO COCOA CULTIVARS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) FROM A GERMPLASM BANK IN VENEZUELA

  • ELEINIS ÁVILA-LOVERA (a1), ILSA CORONEL (a1), RAMÓN JAIMEZ (a2), ROSA URICH (a1), GABRIELA PEREYRA (a1), OSMARY ARAQUE (a2), IRAIMA CHACÓN (a3) and WILMER TEZARA (a1)...

Summary

We studied physiological traits of 12 Criollo cocoa cultivars growing in a germplasm bank in the southern region of Maracaibo Lake Basin, during the rainy (RS) and dry seasons (DS) of 2007. A further evaluation of photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental parameters was done on three cultivars: Los Caños 001 (LCA001), Sur Porcelana 010 (SP010) and Escalante 001 (ESC001) in 2009 and 2010. Leaf water potential (ΨL) of most cultivars decreased during the DS of 2007, with the exception of ESC001. Maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance and water use efficiency varied among cultivars and seasons. The CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate (ACO2sat) was higher in LCA001 and ESC001 than in SP010, with no differences in carboxylation efficiency. Light curve responses of the three cultivars were similar. In all cultivars, no evidence of chronic photoinhibition was observed, since maximum quantum yield of photosystem II was high (0.77–0.81). We conclude that ESC001 has the best physiological performance (ΨL remained unchanged, highest Amax, ACO2sat and photochemical activity), and it seems to be a promising cultivar for cocoa agroforestry systems in the southern region of Maracaibo.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ADULT TREES OF CRIOLLO COCOA CULTIVARS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) FROM A GERMPLASM BANK IN VENEZUELA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ADULT TREES OF CRIOLLO COCOA CULTIVARS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) FROM A GERMPLASM BANK IN VENEZUELA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ADULT TREES OF CRIOLLO COCOA CULTIVARS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) FROM A GERMPLASM BANK IN VENEZUELA
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: eleinis.avilalovera@email.ucr.edu; Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California Riverside, 2150 Batchelor Hall, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

References

Hide All
Abo-Hamed, S., Collin, H. A. and Hardwick, K. (1983). Biochemical and physiological aspects of leaf development in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). VII. Growth, orientation, surface structure and water loss from developing flush leaves. New Phytologist 95:917.
Acheampong, K., Hadley, P. and Daymond, A. J. (2013). Photosynthetic activity and early growth of four cacao genotypes as influenced by different shade regimes under West African dry and wet season conditions. Experimental Agriculture 49:3142.
Almeida, A.-A. F., Gomes, F. P., Araujo, R. P., Santos, R. C. and Valle, R. R. (2014). Leaf gas exchange in species of the Theobroma genus. Photosynthetica 52:1621
Almeida, A.-A. F. and Valle, R. R. (2007). Ecophysiology of the cacao tree. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 19:425448.
Alverson, W. S., Whitlock, B. A., Nyffeler, R., Bayer, C. and Baum, D. A. (1999). Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data. American Journal of Botany 86:14741486.
Alvim, R. and Nair, P. (1986). Combination of cocoa with other plantation crops: an agroforestry system in southeast Bahía, Brasil. Agroforestry System 4:315.
Araque, O., Jaimez, R. E., Tezara, W., Coronel, I., Urich, R. and Espinoza, W. (2012). Comparative photosynthesis, water relations, growth and survival rates in juvenile Criollo cacao cultivars (Theobroma cacao) during dry and wet seasons. Experimental Agriculture 48:513522.
Bae, H., Kim, S.-H., Kim, M. S., Sicher, R. C., Strem, M. D., Natarajan, S. and Bailey, B. A. (2008). The drought response of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and the regulation of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis by drought and other stresses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 46:174188.
Baker, N. and Hardwick, K. (1973). Biochemical and physiological aspects of leaf development in cacao (Theobroma cacao). I. Development of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity. New Physiologist 72:13151324.
Baker, N. and Hardwick, K. (1976). Development of photosynthetic apparatus in cacao leaves. Photosynthetica 10:361366.
Balasimha, D., Daniel, E. V. and Bhat, P. (1991). Influence of environmental factor on photosynthesis in cocoa trees. Agriculture Forest Meteorology 55:1521.
Baligar, V., Bunce, J., Machado, R. and Elson, M. (2008). Photosynthetic photon flux density carbon, dioxide concentration and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings. Photosynthetica 46:216221.
Belsky, J. M. and Siebert, S. F. (2003). Cultivating cacao: implications of sun–grown cacao on local food security and environmental sustainability. Agriculture and Human Values 20:277285.
Carr, M. K. V. and Lockwood, G. (2011). The water relations and irrigation requirements of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): a review. Experimental Agriculture 47:653676.
Chaves, M. M. and Pereira, J. S. (1992). Water stress, CO2 and climate change. Journal of Experimental Botany 43:11311139.
Chaves, M. M., Pereira, J. S., Maroco, J., Rodrigues, M. L., Ricardo, C. P. P., Osório, M. L., Carvalho, I., Faria, T. and Pinheiro, C. (2002). How plants cope with water stress in the field? Photosynthesis and growth. Annals of Botany 89:907916.
Cheesman, E. E. (1944). Notes on the nomenclature, classification and possible relationships of cocoa populations. Tropical Agriculture 21:144159.
Daymond, A., Hadley, P., Machado, R. C. R. and Ng, E. (2002b). Genetic variability in partitioning to the yield component of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Hortscience 37:799801.
Daymond, A. J., Hadley, P., Machado, R. C. R. and Ng, E. (2002a). Canopy characteristics of contrasting clones of cacao (Theobroma cacao). Experimental Agriculture 38:359367.
Daymond, A., Tricker, P. and Hadley, P. (2011). Genotypic variation in photosynthesis in cacao is correlated with stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen. Biologia Plantarum 55:99104.
Elwers, S., Zambrano, A., Rohsius, C. and Lieberei, R. (2009). Differences between the content of phenolic compounds in Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao L.). European food Research Technology 229:937948.
Evans, J. R. (1989). Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78:919.
Farquhar, G. and Richards, R. (1984). Isotopic composition of plant carbon correlates with water–use efficiency of wheat genotypes. Functional Plant Biology 11:539552.
Farquhar, G. D. and Sharkey, T. D. (1982). Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review Plant Physiology 33:317345.
Field, C. and Mooney, H. A. (1986). The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship in wild plants. In On the Economy of Form and Function. 2555 (Ed. T. J. Givinsh). Cambridge, USA: Brazil, Cambridge University Press.
Galyuon, I. K. A., McDavid, C. R., Lopez, F. B. and Spence, J. A. (1996). The effect of irradiance level on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Tropical Agriculture 73:2933.
Genty, B., Briantais, J. M. and Baker, N. R. (1989). The relationships between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochimica et Biophyssica Acta 990:8792.
Gornall, J., Betts, R., Burke, E., Clark, R., Camp, J., Willet, K. and Wiltshire, A. (2010). Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty–first century. Philosophical Transactions on the Royal Society 365:29732989.
ICCO (2012). The World Cocoa Economy: Past and Present. London.
ICCO (2013). Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics, Vol. XXXIX, No. 2, Cocoa year 2012/13.
IPCC (2014). Carbon Dioxide: Projected emissions and concentrations. Available at http://www.ipcc-data.org/observ/ddc_co2.html.
Jaimez, R. E., Araque, O., Guzman, D., Mora, A., Azócar, C., Espinoza, W. and Tezara, W. (2013). Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics 114:111.
Jaimez, R. E., Tezara, W., Coronel, I. and Urich, R. (2008). Ecofisiología del cacao (Theobroma cacao): su manejo en el sistema agroforestal. Sugerencias para su mejoramiento en Venezuela. Revista Forestal Venezolana 52:253258.
Joly, R. and Hahn, D. (1989). Net assimilation of cacao seedlings during periods of plant water deficit. Photosynthesis Research 21:151159.
Marcano, M. (2007). Cartografía Genética de Factores del Rendimiento y de Caracteres Morfológicos en una Población Cultivada de Cacao Criollo ‘Moderno’ (Theobroma cacao L.) Mediante un Análisis de Asociación. PhD thesis, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela. 227.
Martins, S. C. V., Galmés, J., Cavatte, P. C., Pereira, L. F., Ventrella, M. C. and DaMatta, F. M. (2014). Understanding the low photosynthetic rates of sun and shade coffee leaves: bridging the gap on the relative roles of hydraulic, diffusive and biochemical constraints to photosynthesis. PlosOne 9:110.
McDowell, N., Pockman, W. T., Allen, C. D., Breshears, D. D., Cobb, N., Kolb, T., Plaut, J., Sperry, J., West, A., Williams, D. G. and Yepez, E. A. (2008). Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytologist 178:719739.
Miyaji, K. I., Silva, W. S. and Alvim, P. T. (1997a). Longevity of leaves of a tropical tree, Theobroma cacao, grown under shading, in relation to position within the canopy and time of emergence. New Phytologist. 135:445454.
Miyaji, K. I., Silva, W. S. and Alvim, P. T. (1997b). Productivity of leaves of a tropical tree, Theobroma cacao, grown under shading, in relation to leaf age and light conditions within the canopy. New Phytologist 137:463472.
Mohd Razi, I., Abd Halim, H., Kamariah, D. and Mohd Noh, J. (1992). Growth, plant water relation and photosynthesis rate of young Theobroma cacao as influenced by water stress. Pertanika 15:9397.
Mohotti, A. J., Dennett, M. D. and Lawlor, D. W. (2000). Electron transport as a limitation to photosynthesis of Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntz): a comparison with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with special reference to irradiance. Tropical Agricultural Research 12:110.
Moser, G., Leuschner, C., Hertel, D., Hölscher, D., Köhler, M., Leitner, D., Michalzik, B., Prihastanti, E., Tjitrosemito, S. and Schwendenmann, L. (2010). Response of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao) to a 13–month desiccation period in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems 79:171187.
Motamayor, J. C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J. W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D. N., Brown, J. S. and Schnell, R. J. (2008). Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS One 3:18.
Motamayor, J. C., Risterucci, A. M., Lopez, P. A., Ortiz, C. F., Moreno, A. and Lanaud, C. (2002). Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas. Heredity 89:380386.
Rada, F., Jaimez, R. E., García–Nuñez, C., Azócar, A. and Ramírez, M. E. (2005). Relaciones hídricas e intercambio de gases en Theobroma cacao var. Guasare bajo períodos de déficit hídrico. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía (LUZ) 22:112120.
Ribeiro, M. A. Q., da Silva, J. O., Aitken, W. M., Machado, R. C. R. and Baligar, V. C. (2008). Nitrogen use efficiency in cacao genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31:239249.
Tezara, W., Coronel, I., Urich, R., Marín, O., Jaimez, R. and Chacón, I. (2009). Ecophysiological plasticity of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.) from different environments of Venezuela. III Congreso Latino Americano de Ecología and IX Congreso de Ecología do Brasil. Săo Lourenço, MG: Brazil, 15.
Tezara, W., Fernández, M. D., Donoso, C. and Herrera, A. (1998). Seasonal changes in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in five plant species from a semiarid ecosystem. Photosynthetica 35:399410.
Wood, G. A. R. and Lass, R. A. (2001). Cacao. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.

ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ADULT TREES OF CRIOLLO COCOA CULTIVARS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) FROM A GERMPLASM BANK IN VENEZUELA

  • ELEINIS ÁVILA-LOVERA (a1), ILSA CORONEL (a1), RAMÓN JAIMEZ (a2), ROSA URICH (a1), GABRIELA PEREYRA (a1), OSMARY ARAQUE (a2), IRAIMA CHACÓN (a3) and WILMER TEZARA (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed