The poorly understood aetiology of schizophrenia is known to involve a major genetic contribution even though the genetic factors remain elusive. Most genetic studies are based on Mendelian rules and focus on the nuclear genome, but current studies indicate that other genetic mechanisms are probably involved. This review focuses on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a maternally inherited, 16.6-Kb molecule crucial for energy production that is implicated in numerous human traits and disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the studies that have explored mtDNA in schizophrenia patients and those which provide evidence for its implication in this illness. Alterations in mitochondrial morphometry, brain energy metabolism, and enzymatic activity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggest a mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia that could be related to the genetic characteristics of mtDNA. Moreover, evidence of maternal inheritance and the presence of schizophrenia symptoms in patients suffering from a mitochondrial disorder related to an mtDNA mutation suggest that mtDNA is involved in schizophrenia. The association of specific variants has been reported at the molecular level; however, additional studies are needed to determine whether the mitochondrial genome is involved in schizophrenia.